is meat obtained from a bovine.
is a taboo meat in a number of religions, most notably Hinduism. Also, consumption
of beef (along with other meats) is frowned upon by many Buddhists, although it
is not strictly taboo.
contrast, beef is one of the principal meats used in European cuisine and cuisine
of the Americas, and is important in Africa, East Asia, and Southeast Asia as
be cut into steak, pot roasts, short ribs, or ground into hamburger. Several Asian
and European nationalities include the blood in their cuisine as well -- the British
use it to make black pudding, and Filipinos use it to make a stew called dinuguan.
Other beef variety meats include the tongue, which is usually sliced for sandwiches
in Western cooking; tripe from the stomach; various glands—particularly the pancreas
and thyroid—referred to as sweetbreads; and the tender testicles of the bull commonly
known as "beef balls", "calf fries", or "Rocky Mountain oysters."
better cuts are usually obtained from steers, as heifers tend to be kept for breeding.
Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime. The
meat from older cows and bulls is generally tougher, so it is frequently used
for ground beef. Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands,
or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation
called a feedlot.
United States, Brazil, the EU, China, and India, are the world's five largest
producers of beef. Beef production is also important to the economy of Argentina,
the Russian Federation, Australia, Mexico, and Canada.
United States, the USDA operates a voluntary beef grading program. The grades
are based on two main criteria, the degree of marbling, or fat, in the beef and
the age of the carcass. The younger and more marbled receive the better grades.
The more tender and juicy better grades are used by restaurants and hotels and
also, except for Prime, sold in supermarkets. The lower grades are used
for processing or may be sold as ungraded ground beef. The USDA quality grades
are as follows:
section denotes the American system of beef cutting. Other cultures have similar
systems, but the exact cuts and terminology differ).
cuts of beef. -- Know your cuts of Beef
is first divided into primal cuts. These are basic sections from which
steaks and other subdivisions are cut. The following is a list of the primal cuts,
ordered front to back,
then top to bottom. The short loin and the sirloin are sometimes considered as
one section. --
- one of the most common sources for hamburger. Chuck is a heavily exercised area.
However, this area contains a great deal of connective tissue, including collagen.
Collagen melts during cooking, making the meat intensely flavorful. Cuts from
this area will benefit from slow, wet cooking methods like stewing, braising or
pot-roasting. ---Pot Roast, Short Ribs, Top Blade Steak
- Rib Eye
Loin - the most tender, and the most expensive --can be prepared without the aid
of moist heat or long cooking times. Cuts from the short loin may be sautéed,
pan fried, broiled, pan broiled or grilled.-
Steak --very popular steak cut from the rear end of the short loin; the name originated
from the days when it was served in public Ale Houses that also served a dark
beer called porter. The porterhouse consists of both tenderloin and strip steak.
The tenderloin is often served separately as filet mignon
- T-bone Steak —cut
from the middle section of the short loin; similar to the porterhouse steak; has
a smaller piece of the tenderloin; usually grilled or pan-fried.
-- this is often considered the most tender cut of beef. It can be cut as the
whole strip of meat, or into individual filet steaks (filet mignon). The meat
responds well to sauces, meaning the meat does not overpower the flavor of the
is less tender than short loin, but more flavorful. Sirloin is found in the area
of the hipbone. These tender cuts respond well to sautéing, pan-frying, broiling,
pan-broiling or grilling. e.g., sirloin steaks which are available in a variety
of boneless and bone-in steaks and sirloin tip roast which are excellent when
dry roasted or marinated
round is part of the hip muscle and consists of lean meat well suited to long,
moist cooking methods. Top Round is the most tender part of the round and can
be prepared as pot roast or cut into thick steaks for braised dishes. Rump Roast
is considered a very popular cut for pot roast, but can also be roasted at low
-- Shank Cross Cuts and Beef Stew
-- Corned Beef and Brisket --Brisket First Cut —a leaner cut of the brisket, for
those who want the flavor but not the fat of a brisket pot roast -- Brisket Front
Cut—fork tender and succulent,
PLATE - Short Ribs, Beef for Stew, Ground Beef
-- Flank Steak, Skirt Steak, Steak Rolls
Tip Steak, Tip Roast, Tip Kebobs
Scotch Beef originates in a designated area on and around the estate of the Duke
of Buccleuch in Scotland.
Angus Beef ™ is beef certified by the USDA to have come from Angus cattle.
aged beef has been aged using a special process.
fed beef has been raised primarily on forage rather than in a feedlot.
beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance
with Jewish dietary laws.
beef is produced without hormones, pesticides, or other chemicals though requirements
for labeling something "organic" vary widely.
Europe, the English are particularly
associated with beef-eating, which
is why the French call them les
rosbifs (roast beefs). In fact,
according to research carried out
by the Museum of London amongst Roman
rubbish dumps in London, it seems
that the English acquired their first
taste of roast beef from the Roman
military as the city expanded under
their occupation. Despite this, it
seems not to have become popular amongst
the population in general until the
Middle Ages or later, and only became
a 'national caricature' in the 18th
century. (Observer Aug 6, 2000).
Despite this image, England today
has more vegetarians and semi-vegetarians,
in percentage terms, than any other
cooking beef to the proper temperature
TEMPERATURES IN COOKING MEAT
over-intensive farming of beef resulted in the world's first recognised outbreak
of bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE or, colloquially, "mad cow disease") in the United Kingdom
in 1986. Eating beef from cattle with BSE is thought to have caused the new variant
of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD) in about 131 cases (2003 June data) in the
United Kingdom and some few in France. The perception of beef as potentially lethal
caused significant damage to the UK beef industry. The attempts to wipe out BSE
in the UK by a kill-and-burn campaign, although ultimately successful, did further
damage from which the beef industry is only recently recovering. Since then, a
number of other countries have had outbreaks of BSE. BSE is an illness that cattle
can get by feeding them other animals, including their own species, in order to
consume more protein for growth.