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GAMAY WINE GRAPE
Gamay is a purple-colored grape variety used to make red wines, most notably grown in Beaujolais and in the Loire Valley around Tours.[1] Its full name is Gamay Noir Jus Blanc. It is a very old cultivar, mentioned as long ago as the 15th century. It has been often cultivated because it makes for abundant production; however, it can produce wines of distinction when planted on acidic soils, which help to soften the grape's naturally high acidity.[2]  

Wine description light bodied and fruity -- cru wines found in northern Beaujolais wines typically have the flavor of sour cherries, black pepper, dried berry and raisined blackcurrant
Food pairing bistro fair -- roast chicken -- mild and nutty cheeses, such as swiss, brie and Munster
Origin France
Notable regions Beaujolais, Loire Valley; Niagara Peninsula; Willamette Valley
Notable wines Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains, Beaujolais nouveau

History

The Gamay grape is thought to have appeared first in the village of the Gamay, south of Beaune, in the 1360s.[3] The grape brought relief to the village growers following the decline of the Black Death. In contrast to the Pinot Noir variety, Gamay ripened two weeks earlier and was less difficult to cultivate. It also produced a strong, fruitier wine in a much larger abundance.

In July 1395, the Duke of Burgundy Philippe the Bold outlawed the cultivation of the grape, referring to it as the "disloyal Gaamez" that in spite of its ability to grow in abundance was full of "very great and horrible harshness",[4] due in part to the variety's occupation of land that could be used for the more "elegant" Pinot Noir. 60 years later, Philippe the Good, issued another edict against Gamay in which he stated the reasoning for the ban is that "The Dukes of Burgundy are known as the lords of the best wines in Christendom. We will maintain our reputation".[5]

Characteristics

Gamay is a very vigorous vine which tends not to root very deep on alkaline soils resulting in pronounced hydrological stress on the vines over the growing season with a correspondingly high level of acidity in the grapes. The acidity is softened through carbonic maceration, a process that also gives the wine tropical flavors and aromas, reminiscent of bananas.

Gamay-based wines are typically light bodied and fruity. Wines meant to be drunk after some modest aging tend to have more body and are produced by whole-berry maceration. The latter are produced mostly in the designated Crus areas of northern Beaujolais where the wines typically have the flavor of sour cherries, black pepper, dried berry and raisined blackcurrant.[6]

Regional production

In addition to being well suited to the terroir of Beaujolais,[4] Gamay is grown extensively in the Loire Valley around Tours where it is typically blended with Cabernet Franc and a local clone of the Malbec. These wines are similar to those of Crus Beaujolais but with raspberry notes and the signature fresh-peppery nose of the Cabernet Franc.

Gamay is also the grape of the Beaujolais nouveau, produced exclusively from the more alkaline soils of Southern Beaujolais where the grape is incapable of making drinkable wines without aggressive carbonic maceration.[7] The acid levels of the grape grown in the limestone Pierres Doreas of the South are too high for making wines with any appeal beyond the early release Nouveaus.

Gamay is commonly grown in the Niagara Peninsula in Canada, some producers being in the Short Hills Bench, Beamsville Bench and St. David's Bench to mention a few, as well as in Prince Edward County. One producer even has a regional clone which they discovered, Gamay Droit, which is a recognized mutation. It is also grown successfully by a small number of wineries in Australia to make a range of wines including light bodied red wines suitable for early drinking.

Gamay has also been introduced into Oregon's Willamette Valley wine region, a place known for its wines made from Pinot Noir, another Burgundian grape. It was introduced by Amity Vineyards in 1988.[8] Tasting notes published by the vineyards at Amity, WillaKenzie and Brickhouse describe wines that match the basic profiles of Crus Beaujolais.[9]

Similarly named grapes

The Gamay name has become attached to other varieties grown in California, which at one time were thought to be the true Gamay. The grape 'Napa Gamay' is now known as Valdeguie, and the name Napa Gamay will no longer appear on labels after 2007. Gamay Beaujolais is considered to be an early ripening Californian clone of Pinot Noir. Despite similar names the grapes Gamay du Rhone and Gamay St-Laurent are not the Beaujolais grape either but rather the southwestern France grape Abouriou.[10]

See Also:

Home Wine Page
History of Wine
Classification of Wines
Science of Taste
The Science of Wine Aroma
About the Acids in Wine
Polyphenols (Tannins) in Wine
Oak in Wines
The Basic Wine Pairing Rules
Science of Food and Wine Pairing
Sugars in Wine
About Wine Tasting
Wine Tasting Terms
Storage of Wine
Aging of Wine
Wine Acessories
Headaches from Wine
About a Wine Sommelier

References

  1. Walton, Stuart (2005). Cook's Encyclopedia of Wine. Anness Publishing Limited 2002, 2005. pp. 92.
  2. Fanet, Jacuqes. Great Wine Terroirs, University of California Press, Berkeley (2004) pp. 60-61.
  3. Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 133. Simon and Schuster 1989
  4. Lichine, Alexis (1967). Alexis Lichine's Encyclopedia of Wines and Spirits. London: Cassell & Company Ltd.. pp. 158. 
  5. Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 134. Simon and Schuster 1989
  6. Fanet, Jacuqes. Great Wine Terroirs, University of California Press, Berkeley (2004) p. 57
  7. Fanet, Jacuqes. Great Wine Terroirs, University of California Press, Berkeley (2004) p. 59
  8. Appellationamerica.com Amity Vineyards
  9. See the websites of Amity, WillaKenzie and Brickhouse for their tasting notes.
  10. J. Robinson, Vines, Grapes & Wines, p. 204, Mitchell Beazley 1986

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