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SYRAH WINE GRAPE
Syrah or Shiraz is a dark-skinned grape grown throughout the world and used primarily to produce powerful red wines. Whether sold as Syrah or Shiraz, these wines enjoy great popularity.

Syrah is used as a varietal and is also blended. Following several years of strong planting, Syrah was estimated in 2004 to be the world's 7th most grown grape at 142,600 hectares (352,000 acres).[1]

DNA profiling in 1999 found Syrah to be the offspring of two obscure grapes from southeastern France, Dureza and Mondeuse Blanche.[2] It should not be confused with Petite Sirah, a synonym for Durif, a cross of Syrah with Peloursin dating from 1880.

 

Wine description General: High tannins, high acidity, blackberry, dark chocolate; Medium climate: Mint, eucalyptus, smoked meat, black pepper; Hot climate: Liquorice, cloves
Food pairing Pairs with grilled meats, whether steaks, hamburger, sausage, or lamb; pizza, game such as venison, boar, or pheasant
Origin France
Notable regions Rhone, California AVAs, Hunter Valley, McLaren Vale, Barossa Valley
Notable wines
Cote-Rotie, Hermitage, Chateauneuf-du-Pape


Origin

Syrah has a long documented history in the Rhone region of Southeastern France, and it was not known if it had originated in that region. In 1998, a study conducted by Carole Meredith's research group in the Department of Viticulture and Enology at University of California, Davis used DNA typing and extensive grape reference material from the viticultural research station in Montpellier, France to conclude that Syrah was the offspring of the grape varieties Dureza (father) and Mondeuse Blanche (mother).[2][3][4][5][6]

Dureza is a dark-skinned grape variety from the Ardeche region in France that has all but disappeared from the vineyards, and the preservation of such varieties is a speciality of Montpellier. Mondeuse Blanche is a white grape variety cultivated in the Savoy region, and is still found in very small amounts in that region's vineyards today. Both varieties are somewhat obscure today and have never achieved anything near Syrah's fame or popularity, and there is no record of them ever having been cultivated at long distances from their present home. Thus, both Syrah's parents come from a limited area in southeastern France, very close to northern Rh么ne. Based on these findings, the researchers have concluded that Syrah originated from northern Rh么ne.[2][6]

The DNA typing leaves no room for doubt in this matter, and the numerous other hypotheses of the grape's origin which have been forwarded during the years all completely lack support in form of documentary evidence or ampelographic investigations, be it by methods of classical botany or DNA. Instead, they seem to have been based primarily or solely on the name or synonyms of the variety. Because of varying orthography for grape names, especially for old varieties, this is in general very thin evidence. Despite this, origins such as Syracuse or the Iranian city of Shiraz have been proposed.[6]

The parentage information does however not reveal how old the grape variety is, i.e., when the pollination of a Mondeuse Blanche vine by Dureza took place, leading to the original Syrah seed plant. In the year AD 77, Pliny the Elder wrote in his Naturalis Historia about the wines of Vienne, where the Allobroges made famous and prized wine from a dark-skinned grape variety that had not existed some 50 years earlier, in Virgil's age.[7] Pliny called the vines of this wine Allobrogica, and it has been speculated that it could be today's Syrah. However, the description of the wine would also fit, for example, Dureza[2] and Pliny's observation that the vines of Allobrogica was resistant to cold is not entirely consistent with Syrah.[7]

The name Shiraz

It is called Syrah in its country of origin, France, as well as in the rest of Europe, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Uruguay and most of the United States. The name Shiraz became popular for this grape variety in Australia, where it has long been established as the most grown dark-skinned variety. In Australia it was also commonly called Hermitage up to the late 1980s, but since that name is also a French Protected designation of origin, this naming practice caused a problem in some export markets and was dropped. The name Shiraz for this grape variety is also commonly used in South Africa and Canada.

The grape is also known under many other synonyms that are used in various parts of the world including Antourenein Noir, Balsamina, Candive, Entournerein, Hignin Noir, Marsanne Noir, Schiras, Sirac, Syra, Syrac, Serine, and Sereine.[8]

Legends of Syrah's origins come from one of its synonyms - Shiraz.[9] Because a city in Iran called Shiraz produced the well-known Shirazi wine,[10] legends claim that the Syrah grape originated in Shiraz and then was brought to Rh么ne. This association suggests that "Syrah" is a local French synonym and "Shiraz" is the proper name.

There are at least two significantly different versions of the myth, giving different accounts of how the variety is supposed to have been brought from Shiraz to Rh么ne and differing up to 1,800 years in dating this event. In one version, the Phocaeans should have brought Syrah/Shiraz to their colony around Marseilles (then known as Massilia), which was founded around 600 BC. The grape should then later have made its way to northern Rh么ne, which was never colonized by the Phocaeans. No documentary evidence exists to back up this legend, and it also requires that the variety later has vanished from the Marseilles region without leaving any trace.[7]

In another version, the person who brought the variety to Rh么ne is even named, being the crusader Gaspard de St茅rimberg, who is supposed to have built the chapel at Hermitage.[7] Even before the advent of DNA typing of grapes, there were several problems with this legend. First, no ampelographic investigations of the grapes from Shiraz seem to have been made. Second, it is documented that the famous Shirazi wine was white,[10] ruling out the use of dark-skinned grapes such as Syrah, and no known descriptions of this wine's taste and character indicate any similarity whatsoever with red wines from the Rh么ne. Third, it is highly doubtful if any crusader would have journeyed as far east as Persia, since the crusades were focused on the Holy Land.

The legend connecting Syrah with the city of Shiraz in Iran may, however, be of French origin. James Busby wrote in Journal of a recent visit to the principal vineyards of Spain and France that the 1826 book 艗nologie Fran莽aise "stated that, according to the tradition of the neighbourhood, the plant [Scyras] was originally brought from Shiraz in Persia, by one of the hermits of the mountain".[11]

Since the name Shiraz has been used primarily in Australia in modern time, while the earliest Australian documents use the spelling "Scyras", it has been speculated (among others by Jancis Robinson[8]) that the name Shiraz is in fact a so-called "strinization" of Syrah's name via Scyras. However, while the names Shiraz and Hermitage gradually seem to have replaced Scyras in Australia from the mid-19th century, the spelling Shiraz has also been documented in British sources back to at least the 1830s.[11][12][13] So, while the name or spelling Shiraz may be an effect of the English language on a French name, there is no evidence that it actually originated in Australia, although it was definitely the Australian usage and the Australian wines that made the use of this name popular.[7]

Rise to fame

The wines that made Syrah famous were those from Hermitage, the hill above the town Tain-l'Hermitage in northern Rh么ne where there is an hermitage (chapel) on the top, and where de St茅rimberg is supposed to have settled as a hermit after his crusades. Hermitage wines have for centuries had a reputation for being powerful and excellent. While Hermitage was quite famous in the 18th and 19th centuries, and attracted interest from foreign oenophiles such as Bordeaux enthusiast Thomas Jefferson, it lost ground and foreign attention in the first half of the 20th century.[14]

In the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries, most Hermitage wine that left France did so as a blending component in Bordeaux wines. In an era when "clarets" were less powerful than today, and before appellation rules, red wines from warmer regions would be used for improvement (or adulteration, depending on the point of view) of Bordeaux wines. While Spanish and Algerian wines are also known to have been used for this purpose, top Bordeaux ch芒teaux would use Hermitage to improve their wines, especially in weaker vintages.[5][15]

Arrival in Australia

In 1831, the Scotsman James Busby, often called "the Father of Australian viticulture", made a trip back to Europe to collect cuttings from vines (primarily from France and Spain) for introduction to Australia.[16] One of the varieties collected by him was Syrah, although Busby used the two spellings "Scyras" and "Ciras". The cuttings were planted in the Sydney Botanical Gardens, and in Hunter Valley, and in 1839 Modern history

Modern history

Syrah continues to be the main grape of the Northern Rh么ne and is associated with classic wines such as Hermitage, Cornas and Cote-Rotie. In the Southern Rhone it is used as a blending grape in such wines as Chateauneuf-du-Pape, Gigondas and Cotes du Rhone, where Grenache usually makes up the bulk of the blend. Although its best incarnations will age for decades, less-extracted styles may be enjoyed young for their lively red and blueberry characters and smooth tannin structure. Syrah has been widely used as a blending grape in the red wines of many countries due to its fleshy fruit mid-palate, balancing the weaknesses of other varieties and resulting in a "complete" wine.

From the 1970s and even more from the 1990s, Syrah has enjoyed increased popularity, and plantings of the variety has expanded significantly in both old and new locations.[6] In the early 2000s, it broke into the top 10 of varieties planted worldwide for the first time.[1]

Syrah wines

Syrah is widely used to make a dry red table wine, which can be both varietal or blended. Four main uses can be distinguished:

  • Varietal Syrah or Shiraz. Of the better-known wines, this is the style of Hermitage in northern Rh么ne or Australian Shiraz.
  • Syrah blended with a small amount of Viognier. This is the traditional style of C么te-R么tie in northern Rh么ne.
  • Syrah as a roughly equal blending component for Cabernet Sauvignon. In modern times, this blend originated in Australia, so it is often known as Shiraz-Cabernet.
  • Syrah as a minor blending component for Grenache and Mourv猫dre. This is the traditional style of Ch芒teauneuf-du-Pape of southern Rh么ne, and this blend is often referred to as GSM in Australia.

Smaller amounts of Syrah are also used in the production of other wine styles, such as rose wine, fortified wine in Port wine style, and sparkling red wine.[18] While Australian sparkling Shiraz traditionally have had some sweetness, a number of Australian winemakers also make a full-bodied sparkling dry Shiraz, that contains the complexity and sometimes earthy notes that are normally found in still wine.[19]

Due to their concentrated flavours and high tannin content, many premium Syrah wines are at their best after some considerable bottle aging. In exceptional cases, this may be 15 years or longer.

Syrah has one of the highest recommended wine serving temperatures at 65 掳F (18 掳C).[20]

Taste and flavours

Wines made from Syrah are often powerfully flavoured and full-bodied. The variety produces wines with a wide range of flavor notes, depending on the climate and soils where it is grown, as well as other viticultural practices chosen. Aroma characters can range from violets to berries (usually dark as opposed to red), chocolate, espresso and black pepper. No one aroma can be called "typical" though blackberry and pepper are often noticed. With time in the bottle these "primary" notes are moderated and then supplemented with earthy or savory "tertiary" notes such as leather and truffle. "Secondary" flavor and aroma notes are those associated with several things, generally winemakers' practices (such as oak barrel and yeast regimes).

Syrah or Shiraz on labels

The Syrah-dominated appellations (AOCs) of northern Rhone have, like most other French appellations and regions, no tradition of varietal labelling of their wines. Indeed, such practices are generally disallowed under AOC rules, and only the AOC name (such as Cote-Rotie, Crozes-Hermitage or Hermitage) appears on the label. Varietal labelling of Syrah/Shiraz wines is therefore a practice which has emerged in the New World, and primarily in Australia.

To confuse matters, in northern Rhone, different clones of genuine Syrah are referred to as Petite Syrah (small Syrah) or Gros Syrah (large Syrah) depending on the size of their berries, with Petite Syrah being considered the superior version, giving wines higher in phenolics.[6]

As a general rule, most Australian and South African wines are labelled Shiraz, and most European wines (from such regions where varietal labelling is practiced) are labelled Syrah. In other countries, practices vary and winemakers (or wine marketers) sometimes choose either Syrah or Shiraz to signify a stylistic difference in the wine they have made. "Syrah"-labelled wines are sometimes thought to be more similar to classic Northern Rh么ne reds; presumably more elegant, tannic, smoke-flavoured and restrained with respect to their fruit component. "Shiraz"-labelled wines, on the other hand, would then be more similar to archetypical Australian or other New World examples; presumably made from riper berries, more fruit-driven, higher in alcohol, less obviously tannic, peppery rather than smokey, usually more easily approached when young, and possibly slightly sweetish in impression. It must however be realized that this rule of thumb is unevenly applied.[21]

Syrah in different countries

Syrah is a variety that during the last few decades has been imported for cultivation in several countries. It is primarily grown in warmer regions. Worldwide plantations of Syrah have increased considerably in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and both Syrah-labelled and Shiraz-labelled wines are on the increase.[6]

It is grown in many wine producing regions around the world, with concentrations in Australia, The Rhone Valley in France, and the US. It is often used as a blending grape in Spain and Italy as well. It is also planted in Portugal, which favor making varietal Syrah wine, and not only blending with other types.

France

Syrah, as it is known in France, is grown throughout the Rhone valley. The wines that are made from it vary greatly, even over small changes in the vines locations. The differences in the soil quality as well as the changes in the slope of the terrain tend to produce different styles of wine. Ranging from the mineral and tannic nature of Hermitage, to fruity and perfumed in the case of Cote Rotie.[21]

Syrah is also a key component to many blends. It may be used to add structure and color to Grenache in southern Rh么ne blends, including C么tes-du-Rh么ne and Ch芒teauneuf-du-Pape.[22] Syrah is also the only red grape used in the wines of the northern Rh么ne.[23]

In 1968, there existed only 2,700 hectares (6,700 acres) of Syrah vineyards in France, primarily in the traditional appellations of northern Rh么ne, which at that time had not received much attention in the wine world for several decades, and the vineyards of which were not planted to full capacity. After the wines of northern Rh么ne were "rediscovered" by wine writers in the 1970s, plantings expanded considerably. This trend received an extra boost in the 1980s and 1990s, when influential wine writer Robert M. Parker, Jr. started to award very high scores, up to the "perfect" score of 100 points, to wines of some Rh么ne producers. The popularity of Australian Shiraz on the export market may also have played a role. 1988, total French plantings stood at 27,000 hectares (67,000 acres), and the 1999 viticultural survey found 50,700 hectares (125,000 acres) of Syrah vineyards. France thus has the world's largest plantations of Syrah.[6]

While previously unused parts of the northern Rh么ne vineyards have been planted with Syrah as part of the expansion, the major part of the new French Syrah plantations are located in southern Rh么ne (which covers a much larger vineyard area than the northern part) and Languedoc-Roussillon.[6] While southern Rh么ne produces relatively few wines where Syrah is in the majority, the proportion of Syrah in the blended wines of this region has been on the rise. Languedoc-Roussillon uses Syrah to produce both Southern Rh么ne-like blends with Grenache, Australian-style blends with Cabernet Sauvignon, and varietal Syrah.

Australia

The Syrah grape was introduced into Australia in 1832 by James Busby, an immigrant who brought vine clippings from Europe with him, and it is almost invariably called Shiraz.[5] Today it is Australia's most popular red grape, but has not always been in such favor; in the 1970s, white wine was so popular that growers were ripping out unprofitable Shiraz and Grenache vineyards, even those with very old vines. Many factors, including the success of brands like Lindemans (part of Foster's Group) and Jacob's Creek in the UK, as well as Rosemount in the US and UK, were responsible for a dramatic expansion of plantings during the 1980s and 1990s; a similar trajectory occurred in California. However, the biggest factor in this expansion during the 1990s was a federal government tax subsidy to those planting new vineyards.

In the 2005-2006 growing season, total Shiraz plantations in Australia stood at 41,115 hectares (101,600 acres), of which 39,087 hectares (96,590 acres) were old enough to be productive. These vines yielded a total of 422,430 tonnes of Shiraz grapes for wine production. Shiraz is thus the most planted variety in Australia.[24] Australia thus has the world's second largest plantations of Syrah/Shiraz, after France.[6]

Victorian regions include Heathcote, roughly 1.5 hours north of Melbourne. Cooler climate regions such as Western Australia's Margaret River produce Shiraz with marginally less alcohol content and often in a more traditional French style.

A well known example of the Shiraz grape in Australian viticulture is the Penfolds "Grange". This wine was created by winemaker Max Schubert in 1951, and has a reputation of aging well. The Penfolds Grange is predominantly Shiraz, but often includes a small quantity of Cabernet Sauvignon. It is usually a multi-regional blend of quality South Australian Shiraz, with the Barossa Valley playing an important role, and matured in new American Oak. Other well known Australian Shiraz wines include, the Henschke "Hill of Grace" and the Penfolds "RWT".

Recently, Australian Shiraz producers have started to add up to 4% Viognier to their Shiraz to add apricot tones to the wine's nose and palate. With such a small percentage added, the producer wasn't obliged to declare the blend on the label. In the past 5 years however, it's becoming increasingly fashionable to label the wine Shiraz Viognier as Viognier gains consumer acceptance in the market place. The practise of blending Viognier with Syrah has actually been common for years in the Northern Rh么ne Valley region of Cote-Rotie.[25]

Shiraz is also the "S" in "GSM" (Grenache-Shiraz-Mourvrdre), which is common Australian designation for a Chateneuf-du-Pape-like blend.

South Africa

South African plantations have expanded significantly, from 1% of the vineyard area in 1995 to 9.7% in 2007[26] making up a total area under cultivation of 9,856 hectares (24,350 acres). In South Africa, the variety is predominately known as Shiraz, but the designation Syrah is used for "Rh么ne-style" wines.[9] Some see this variety as the "great hope" for South African wines.[27]

United States

In the United States, wine produced from the grape is normally called by its French name, Syrah. However, in cases where winemakers choose to follow a New World style, similar to Penfolds Grange, they may choose to label their wines as Shiraz.[21] Under American wine laws, either name may appear on the label. Syrah first appeared as a wine grape in California in the 1970s, where it was planted by a group of viticulturists who called themselves "Rhone rangers."[22] Although most plantings of the grape are in California, there are increasing amounts of it being grown in Washington state.

California Syrahs, much like those in France, vary a great deal based on the climate and terroir that they inhabit. In exceptionally warm regions, such as parts of Napa, the wine is often blended with other Rh么ne varieties. Other appellations, primarily mountainous ones, tend to produce varietal-based wines that can stand on their own.[28] Syrah was introduced into Washington state in 1985 by the Woodinville, Washington Columbia Winery. Expanding at a significant rate, it is used to produce single varietial wines as well as being blended with grapes such as Grenache, Cinsault, and Viognier.[29]

Argentina

Syrah plantations in Argentina increased from less than 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) in 1990 to 9,500 hectares (23,000 acres) in 2002.[6] Syrah has occasionally been used as a blending component with Argentina's signature dark-skinned grape Malbec to provide an "Argentinian take" on the Australian Cabernet-Shiraz blend.

Chile

Around 2005, there were 2,500 hectares (6,200 acres) of Syrah in Chile.[6]

See Also:

Home Wine Page
History of Wine
Classification of Wines
Science of Taste
The Science of Wine Aroma
About the Acids in Wine
Polyphenols (Tannins) in Wine
Oak in Wines
The Basic Wine Pairing Rules
Science of Food and Wine Pairing
Sugars in Wine
About Wine Tasting
Wine Tasting Terms
Storage of Wine
Aging of Wine
Wine Acessories
Headaches from Wine
About a Wine Sommelier

 

References

  1. Entry on "Vine varieties" in J. Robinson (ed) The Oxford Companion to Wine Third Edition, p. 746, Oxford University Press 2006,
  2. Carole Meredith: Origins of Syrah, p. 3-4 in: The Syrah Producers' Club 19 April 2004 - Syrah Worldwide Roma[dead link]
  3. Bowers, J.E., Siret, R., Meredith, C.P., This, P. and Boursiquot, J.-.M. 2000. "A single pair of parents proposed for a group of grapevine varieties in Northeast France", Acta Hort. (ISHS) 528:129-132 (Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Grapevine Genetics and Breeding)
  4. Vouillamoz, J.F. and Grando, M.S. 2006. "Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: 'Pinot' is related to 'Syrah'", Heredity 97:102-110 Quote: "Our data strongly confirmed the 'Syrah' parentage ('Dureza' x 'Mondeuse Blanche') established by Bowers et al."
  5. Oz Clark&Margaret Rand (2001). Oz Clarke's Encyclopedia of Grapes. Hardcourt,inc. pp. g 247.
  6. Entry on "Syrah" in J. Robinson (ed), "The Oxford Companion to Wine", Third Edition, p. 676-677, Oxford University Press 2006,
  7. Entry on "Rh么ne" in J. Robinson (ed), "The Oxford Companion to Wine", Third Edition, p. 572-573, Oxford University Press 2006,
  8. Jancis Robinson Vines, Grapes & Wine pg 90 Octopus Publishing 1986
  9. Entry on "Shiraz" in J. Robinson (ed), "The Oxford Companion to Wine", Third Edition, p. 627, Oxford University Press 2006,
  10. Entry on "Persia" in J. Robinson (ed), "The Oxford Companion to Wine", Third Edition, p. 512-513, Oxford University Press 2006,
  11. Busby, James (1834). Journal of a recent visit to the principal vineyards of Spain and France. Smith, Elder. p. 108. http://books.google.no/books?id=zUyBFFr4wRoC&dq=1826%20scyras%20shiraz&hl=en&pg=PA108#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  12. Redding, Cyrus (July, 1834). "History of Wines". Gentleman's Magazine (F. Jefferies) 157: 7-11.
  13. Redding, Cyrus (1836). A history and description of modern wines. Whittaker & co.. p. 20. 2C%20or%20Shiraz%22%20%22Cyrus%20Redding%22&pg=PA20#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  14. Entry on "Hermitage" in J. Robinson (ed), "The Oxford Companion to Wine", Third Edition, p. 344, Oxford University Press 2006,
  15. Entry on "Adulteraion and fraud" in J. Robinson (ed), "The Oxford Companion to Wine", Third Edition, p. 4-5, Oxford University Press 2006,
  16. Entry on "Busby, James" in J. Robinson (ed), "The Oxford Companion to Wine", Third Edition, p. 116, Oxford University Press 2006,
  17. James Halliday: Syrah in Australia since 1800, p. 10-14 in: The Syrah Producers' Club 19 April 2004 - Syrah Worldwide Roma
  18. Karen MacNeil (2001). The Wine Bible. Workman Publishing Company. pp. g 786.
  19. W. Blake Gray (2005-05-26). "RED FIZZ Australian-style red bubbly is a grown-up pleasure". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/05/26/WIGO9CSFBM1.DTL. Retrieved 2006-10-14. 
  20. Bonn茅, Jon, msnbc.com (September 21, 2005). The perfect temperature for wine
  21. Oz Clark&Margaret Rand (2001). Oz Clarke's Encyclopedia of Grapes. Hardcourt,inc. pp. g 250.
  22. Jancis Robinson (2003). Jancis Robinson's Wine Course. Abbeville Press. pp. g 152.
  23. Jancis Robinson, ed (2005). Oxford Companion to Wine. Oxford University Press.. pp. g 572.
  24. Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation: Areas of vines and grape production by variety - 2005-06, accessed on March 17, 2008
  25. Jancis Robinson (2005-10-15). "Viognier - it's everywhere nowadays". http://www.jancisrobinson.com/articles/winenews051015. 
  26. South African Wine Industry Statistics 2008
  27. Platter's South African Wines 2009, p66
  28. Oz Clark&Margaret Rand (2001). Oz Clarke's Encyclopedia of Grapes. Hardcourt,inc. pp. gs 252-253.
  29. Oz Clark&Margaret Rand (2001). Oz Clarke's Encyclopedia of Grapes. Hardcourt,inc. pp. g 253.

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