glasses are a type of glass stemware that are used to
drink and taste wine from. Selection of a particular wine
glass for a wine style is important, as the glass shape can
influence its perception.
bottle openers are required to open wine bottles that
are stoppered with a cork. They are slowly being supplanted
by the screwcap closure. There are many different inceptions
of the wine bottle opener ranging from the simple corkscrew,
the screwpull lever, to complicated carbon dioxide driven
openers. The most popular is the wine key, sommelier knife
or "waiter's friend" which resembles a pocket knife and has
a small blade for cutting foil and a screw with a bottle brace.
poppers are also a common means of opening wine. A hollow
spike is driven through the cork of a bottle. A cartridge
of carbon dioxide is then pressed to release a short burst
of air. The sudden increase of air pressure dislodges the
cork and the wine can then be served.
cooler is any type of equipment used in the chilling or
cooling of wine. They may refer to:
table top units that rapidly chill a single bottle. These
are useful for obtaining the correct wine serving temperature
particularly in warmer climates. This style of wine cooler
are more appropriate for white, rose or sparkling wines
which are usually served chilled.
refrigerator style units that store dozens of bottles at
selected temperatures. These are useful for those who do
not have access to a wine cellar, as temperature and humidity
conditions can be replicated. Most units allow the user
to select their ideal temperature of wine and some even
have options to control two separate areas for different
wines. Some units are controlled by a thermostat.
decanter --A wine decanter is a
glass serving vessel into which an entire bottle of wine
is poured. They are used to remove sediment, aerate the
wine, facilitate pouring, and provide elegant presentation.
are important when serving older vintages which are more likely
to accumulate potassium bitartrate crystal sediment in the
process of aging; these can be removed both by filtering when
pouring into the decanter so that the wine in the decanter
is sediment-free or due to the shape of the decanter (flared
bottom), which catches sediment. Decanters promote the aeration
of wine by having a flared bottom, hence large surface area
of wine, maximising the wine-air interface, thereby introducing
more oxygen which improves the wine's bouquet and taste â€“
it also allows the evaporation of undesirable organic compounds,
particularly sulfides and sulfites; this use is controversial,
and some argue that this is unnecessary and harmful, with
swirling the wine in the glass being sufficient and preferable. Because they are a serving
vessel, not a storage vessel, they also can make wine pouring
easier by preventing dribbling, and elegantly display the
wine's color in clear glass, rather than the green glass used
racks are storage devices that hold wine bottles in an
orientation facilitating long term wine aging. Most wine racks
are designed for a bottle to be stored on its side, with a
slight slant downward towards the bottle's neck. This ensures
that wine is always in contact with the cork, preventing the
cork from drying out and the subsequent ingress of oxygen,
which would ultimately spoil the wine. Wine racks can be made
of many materials such as wood, steel, and stone, holding
just several bottles to thousands. These racks also serve
as decorative pieces in many homes.
collar is a wine accessory that fits around the neck of
a wine bottle. When in place it absorbs any drip that may
run down the bottle after pouring. This is beneficial for
preventing stains to surfaces that the bottle comes in contact
with such as table cloths or counter tops. Wine collars are
also called drip rings or drip collars. There
is also a branded wine collar called a Drip Dickey, which
is a registered trademark.
for this simple accessory have varied for over a hundred years.
In 1872, W.R. Miller was issued a patent for a "drip cup",
which formed a circular gutter that would catch the fluid.
The most recognized wine collar today is typically a plastic
or silver ring with an interior lining of red or black felt.
When slipped over the neck of the bottle the felt absorbs
article: Wine Stopper
stopper is an essential wine accessory to close leftover
wine bottles before refrigerating them. Wine stoppers are
used because it is hard to put the original cork back into
vary in shapes, sizes, and materials. The three typical types
are the cork wine stopper, rubber wine stopper, and plastic
wine stopper. All these wine stoppers look very different,
especially the top. The top part can be made from plastic,
wood, or even precious metals and crystals. However the bottom
part of the stoppers are primarily made of the above 3 typical
materials, and newer versions of wine stoppers are made to
expand in the wine glass to ensure a tighter seal.
thief is a glass or food-grade plastic pipette used in
the process of wine making. It may be anywhere from 12 to
24 inches (30 to 60 centimetres) in length and may have
a bend near one end. The wine thief is used to remove a small
amount of wine from a cask, carboy, or other fermentation
device for testing.
may also use a wine thief in connection with a length of tubing
to syphon wine from one container to the other (a process
called racking) or
to transfer the wine to bottles.
tastevin is a small, very shallow silver cup or
saucer traditionally used by winemakers and sommeliers
when judging the maturity and taste of a wine.
cups were originally created by Burgundian winemakers to enable
them to judge the clarity and color of wine that was stored
in dim, candle-lit wine cellars. Regular wine glasses were
too deep to allow for accurate judging of the wine's color
in such faint light. Tastevin are designed with a shiny faceted
inner surface. Often, the bottom of the cup is convex in shape.
The facets, convex bottom, and the shiny inner surface catch
as much available light as possible, reflecting it throughout
the wine in the cup, making it possible to see through the
advent of modern electric lights, tastevin have very little
practical use, although sommeliers often wear them on a ribbon
or chain around the neck as a nod to tradition.
or tastevin are mentioned occasionally in European inventories
from 1200-1600, although none are known to exist today. About
1680 silver cups about 3-4 inches in diameter and 1-2 inches
deep came into use in France by affluent people. The custom
spread and they came into general use among the wealthy around
1720-1750. They were made by master silversmiths, and were
often decorated and engraved with the owner's name. Their
size and shape allowed them to be carried in a pocket at all
times, and they were prized possessions like rings or watches.
Each region in France had its own characteristic style. They
were mostly male possessions, but in Normandy about 15 per
cent were engraved with women's names.
time, wine was sold in barrels and served in pitchers. Wine
bottles were very little used before 1800. Diners and guests
carried their own knives, and ate with their fingers. Louis
XIV refused to use the fork which had become fashionable in
Italy, so the use of forks didn't even begin in France until
about 1730. One could drink using a wooden or terra cotta
cup provided by the host, but carrying your own cup was more
sanitary and more distinguished.
the French revolution the general use of these cups died out,
but winemakers and traders continued their use. After 1840
the design was mostly standardized, to the type shown in the
illustration above. A few tastevin were made and used in countries
other than France, but only a few. In the twentieth century
sommeliers in upscale restaurants sometimes carried tastevin
around their necks with a ribbon or chain, and used them to
check wine after opening the bottle. That custom has largely
died out, but is occasionally still seen in the twenty-first
aerator is a small, in-bottle, hand-held pour-through
or decanter top device for aerating wine. These devices mix
air into the wine as it flows through or over, increasing
exposure to oxygen and causing aeration. They offer an alternative
to swirling, traditional decanting, and to aldouze (i.e. to
wait for wine to breathe). This category emerged in the United
States in or before 2007. This timing can be partially linked to
the decline of the US economy which resulted in wineries releasing
wine early to compensate for sales dips.
are a number of styles of wine aerators and approaches to
accomplish aeration. While injection-style hand-held acrylic
aerators are currently most common, in-bottle and decanter
top aerators are also available. Sieve-style decanter top
funnels have long been used for aeration and catching sediment.
Aerators are made from food safe-plastic or glass, and decanter
top aerators are commonly stainless steel.
aerators work by the Venturi effect, an application of Bernoulli's
principle: they feature a wide tube that narrows. This effect
is widely used in engineering applications, for example to
mix air and fuel in carburetors. This method has been noted
by wine experts
to be too harsh for thinner skinned verietals such as Pinot Noir or Gamay.
wine and vacuumed sealed wine can be aerated through the use
of a single glass aerator. There are a number of different
types of single glass aerators. Some have a movebale spout
that adjusts to the different size and shape of a wine glass.
aerators are the longest used the most varied in design. Variations
on the metal funnel are common, as are shapes and figures
placed in the decanter neck. Pouring over the object creates
clip is described by its inventors as a magnetic filter
that is designed to fit over a wine bottle. It is claimed
to improve a wine's tannins and to remove potential impurities,
thus purportedly simulating the effects of natural bottle
aging. However, there
is no scientific basis for the operation of the wine clip,
and independent tests indicate that it has no effect on the
taste of wine whatsoever.
device, the champagne stirrer or champagne swizzle
is a stick, often ornamental and made of silver, ivory, or
crystal, and often with a flayed end (like a branch), which
is placed or stirred in champagne to reduce or remove the
bubbles. Its use is heavily frowned upon as it destroys the
most valued and distinctive aspect of champagne, namely its
carbonation (compare the now-rare champagne coupe), and accordingly
it is rarely found or used.
stirrers originally developed centuries ago, when carbonation
was seen as a defect, a result of an unintended secondary
they later fell out of vogue in the mid-18th century as sparkling
champagne became desired. Champagne stirrers are today particularly
associated with the ostentation of the Roaring 20s, and stirrers
from this period especially may be admired or collected as
an object in a carbonated beverage such as champagne provides
nucleation sites, thus speeding the release of bubbles.
stirrers operate by two mechanisms: agitation and nucleation.
Stirring sparkling wine, or otherwise agitating it (such as
by swirling) speeds the release of bubbles. Alternatively,
a stirrer with high surface area and sharp corners provides
many nucleation sites at which bubbles may form, and does
not require stirring, hence the pointed and flayed design
of many stirrers.
Science of Wine Aroma
the Acids in Wine
(Tannins) in Wine
The Basic Wine Pairing Rules
Science of Food and Wine
a Wine Sommelier
Sogg Decanting:Aeration -- friend and enemy of wine Wine
Spectator Nov 15th, 2003 2.query.nytimes.com
6. In French a champagne stirrer is known by a variety
of names: batteur à champagne (champagne beater), bâtonnet
(little stick), fouet (whip), moser, mosser, agitateur
7. "Encyclopédie des Vignes au plaisir" 22. Eviter les
8. Comment s'appelle le mélangeur qui enlève les bulles
du champagne (French)
9. Champagne–A Primer, by Ross