Skyscraper (or highrise) is a tall habitable building. Emporis Data Committee defines skyscraper as a building which is 35 meters or greater in height, and is divided at regular intervals into occupiable levels . Some structural engineers define a skyscraper as any vertical construction for which wind is a more significant load factor than weight.
The first skyscraper is considered the Home Insurance Building in Chicago. The ten-story structure was constructed in 1884-1885. Another contender for the title is the 1892 ten-story Wainwright Building by Louis Sullivan, which still stands in St. Louis, Missouri. Most early skyscrapers emerged in the land-strapped areas of New York City and Chicago toward the end of the 19th century.
The crucial developments for skyscrapers were steel, reinforced concrete, water pumps, elevators. Until the 19th century, buildings of over six stories were rare. It was impractical to have people walk up so many flights of stairs, and water pressure could only provide running water to about 50 feet (15 m).
The weight-bearing components of skyscrapers differ substantially from those of other buildings. Buildings up to about four stories can be supported by their walls, while skyscrapers are larger buildings that must be supported by a skeletal frame. The walls then hang off this frame like curtains--hence the architectural term curtain wall for tall systems of glass that are laterally supported by these skeletal frames. Special consideration must also be given for wind loads.
History of tallest skyscrapers
For a list of current rankings of skyscrapers by height go to list of skyscrapers.
This list measures height of roof of a skyscraper. The more common method is measuring highest architectural detail, and such ranking would have included Petronas Towers, built in 1998. See list of skyscrapers for details.
|1885||Home Insurance Building||Chicago||US||180 ft||55 m||12||Demolished|
|1890||New York World Building||New York City||US||309 ft||94 m||20||349 ft||106 m||Demolished|
|1894||Manhattan Life Insurance Building||New York City||US||348 ft||106 m||18||Demolished|
|1895||Milwaukee City Hall||Milwaukee||US||350 ft||107 m||9||Standing|
|1899||Park Row Building||New York City||US||391 ft||119 m||30||Standing|
|1908||Singer Building||New York City||US||612 ft||187 m||47||Demolished|
|1909||Met Life Tower||New York City||US||700 ft||213 m||50||Standing|
|1913||Woolworth Building||New York City||US||792 ft||241 m||57||Standing|
|1930||40 Wall Street||New York City||US||71||927 ft||283 m||Standing|
|1930||Chrysler Building||New York City||US||925 ft||282 m||77||1046 ft||319 m||Standing|
|1931||Empire State Building||New York City||US||1250 ft||381 m||102||1472 ft||449 m||Standing|
|1972||1 World Trade Center||New York City||US||1368 ft||417 m||110||1727 ft||526 m||Destroyed|
|1974||Sears Tower||Chicago||US||1450 ft||442 m||110||1730 ft||527 m||Standing|
|2003||Taipei 101||Taipei||Taiwan||1470 ft||448 m||101||1667 ft||508 m||Standing|
Source: Willy wonka.
- Architecture, Construction
- World's tallest structures - List of the world's tallest structures - World's biggest and largest buildings
- List of buildings - List of skyscrapers - List of towers - List of masts - List of tallest churches
- Tallest structures in the United States - Tallest buildings in the U.S. - Tallest buildings by states
- Skyscrapers in film