A biome is a community
of plants and animals living together in a certain kind of climate.
are the different types of biomes?
of water that sustains a fairly diverse community
diatoms), rooted and floating aquatic plants, grazing snails, clams,
insects, crustaceans, fishes, and amphibians
Streams and Rivers
|bodies of flowing
water moving in one direction
fish such as trout, catfish and carp , aquatic green plants and
of standing water
marshes, swamps, and bogs grasses, reeds, mosses, and evergreen
largest of all the ecosystems
zone where the ocean meets the land -- invertebrates, fishes,
zone waters further from the land, basically the open ocean--surface
seaweeds, many species of fish and some mammals, such as whales
zone --area below the pelagic zone, but does not include the
very deepest parts of the ocean --seaweed, bacteria, fungi, sponges,
sea anemones, worms, sea stars, and fishes
zone--the deep ocean --highly pressured, high in oxygen content,
but low in nutritional content ---many species of invertebrates
and fishes Note: mid-ocean ridges (spreading zones between
tectonic plates), often with hydrothermal vents, are found in
the abyssal zones along the ocean floors. Chemosynthetic bacteria
sill thrive near these vents because of the large amounts of hydrogen
sulfide and other minerals they emit. These bacteria are thus
the start of the food web as they are eaten by invertebrates and
in warm shallow waters. They can be found as barriers along continents
(e.g., the Great Barrier Reef off Australia), fringing islands,
organisms in coral reefs are corals, besides corals, the fauna include
several species of microorganisms, invertebrates, fishes, sea urchins,
octopuses, and sea stars
freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean
like algae, and macroflora, such as seaweeds, marsh grasses, and
mangrove trees (only in the tropics), worms, oysters, crabs, and
|Hot and dry
generally warm throughout the year and very hot in the summer. The
winters usually bring little rainfall
are burrowers and kangaroo rats. There are also insects, arachnids,
reptiles and birds. The animals stay inactive in protected hideaways
during the hot day and come out to forage at dusk, dawn or at night,
when the desert is cooler
It normally does not go above 38° C and evening temperatures are
cool, at around 10° C
include: Creosote bush, bur sage (Franseria dumosa or F. deltoidea),
white thorn, cat claw, mesquite, brittle bushes (Encelia farinosa),
lyciums, and jujube. --animals include mammals such as the kangaroo
rats, rabbits, and skunks; insects like grasshoppers and ants;
reptiles are represented by lizards and snakes; and birds such
as burrowing owls and the California thrasher.
||occur in moderately
cool to warm areas such as the Nearctic and Neotropical realm. A
good example is the Atacama of Chile.
insects, mammals (coyote and badger), amphibians (toads), birds
(great horned owl, golden eagle and the bald eagle), and reptiles
(lizards and snakes), fairy shrimps
by cold winters with snowfall and high overall rainfall throughout
the winter and occasionally over the summer. They occur in the Antarctic,
the main plants
are deciduous, most having spiny leaves.
kangaroo rats, kangaroo mice, pocket mice, grasshopper mice, and
antelope ground squirrels
the equator --distinct seasonality: winter is absent, and only two
seasons are present (rainy and dry). The length of daylight is 12
hours and varies little.
forest: longer dry season (the upper tree story consists of deciduous
trees, while the lower story is still evergreen).
deciduous forest (monsoon): the length of the dry season increases
further as rainfall decreases (all trees are deciduous).
occur in eastern North America, northeastern Asia, and western and
central Europe. Well-defined seasons with a distinct winter characterize
this forest biome. Moderate climate and a growing season
||trees are distinguished
by broad leaves that are lost annually and include such species
as oak, hickory, beech, hemlock, maple, basswood, cottonwood, elm,
willow, and spring-flowering herbs. Fauna is represented by squirrels,
rabbits, skunks, birds, deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf,
fox, and black bear.
in northern areas of the world and near the tops of high mountains
having long, dry, cold winters and short, warm summers
evergreens as well as bushes, shrubs, ferns and mosses can grown
in boreal forests. Carnivores, including weasels, mink, wolves,
wolverines, owls, and hawks hunt in the taiga. Deer, bear, and squirrels
live in taiga all year around, while caribou live there in the winter
with scattered individual trees. Savannas of one sort or another
cover almost half the surface of Africa. Savannas are sometimes
classified as forests
and forbs (small broad-leaved plants that grow with grasses). The
savannas experiences a surge of new life at this time
are found throughout the globe, generally in the interiors of the
continents and north or south of the tropic of cancer/capercorn.
the dominant vegetation. Trees and large shrubs are absent.
is mostly found in the Northern Hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere
it is found on isolated islands off the coast of Antarctica as well
as the Antarctic peninsula.
sedges, reindeer mosses, liverworts, and grasses 400 varieties of
are found in the mountain regions all around the world
dwarf trees, small-leafed shrubs, and heaths.
Animals living in the alpine tundra are: Mammals: pikas, marmots,
mountain goats, sheep, elk Birds: grouselike birds Insects: springtails,
beetles, grasshoppers, butterflies
Biomes -- University of California Museum of Paleontology
Biomes from NASA
US Fish and Wildlife Service
-- Animals of the World
of the World -- The Wild Classroom