Though still in its infancy, nanotechnology will eventually replace silicon transistors and completely change the IC industry,
n 2013 researchers reported the creation of transistors printed on flexible plastic that operate at 25 gigahertz, sufficient for communications circuits and that can be fabricated at scale. The researchers first fabricate the non-graphene-containing structures—the electrodes and gates—on plastic sheets. Separately, they grow large graphene sheets on metal, then peel it off and transfer it to the plastic. Finally, they top the sheet with a waterproof layer. The devices work after being soaked in water, and are flexible enough to be folded.
A carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) refers to a field-effect transistor that utilizes a single carbon nanotube or an array of carbon nanotubes as the channel material instead of bulk silicon in the traditional MOSFET structure. First demonstrated in 1998, there have been major developments in CNTFETs since.[
Graphene has changed from being the exclusive domain of condensed-matter physicists to being explored by those in the electron-device community. In particular, graphene-based transistors have developed rapidly and are now considered an option for post-silicon electronics. However, many details about the potential performance of graphene transistors in real applications remain unclear. (See reference 3)