Area: 7.7 million sq. km. (3 million sq. mi.); about the size of the 48
contiguous United States.
Cities: (2003) Capital--Canberra (pop. 323,000).
Other cities--Sydney (4.2 million), Melbourne (3.6 million), Brisbane (1.7
million), Perth (1.4 million).
Terrain: Varied, but generally low-lying.
Relatively dry, ranging from temperate in the south to tropical in the north.
Noun and adjective--Australian(s).
Population (2005): 20.2 million.
population growth rate: 1.1%.
Ethnic groups: European 92%, Asian 6%, Aboriginal
Religions (2001): Anglican 21%, Roman Catholic 27%, other Christian 20%,
other non-Christian 5%, no religion 16% and not stated 12%.
Years compulsory--to age 15 in all states except Tasmania, where it is
16. Literacy--over 99%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--5/1,000.
Life expectancy--males 78 yrs., females 83 yrs.
Work force (10.1 million):
Agriculture--4%; mining, manufacturing, construction, and utilities--21%;
services--70%; public administration and defense--5%.
Democratic, federal-state system recognizing British monarch as sovereign.
July 9, 1900.
Independence (federation): January 1, 1901.
of state is the governor general, who is appointed by the Queen of Australia (the
British Monarch). Legislative--bicameral Parliament (76-member Senate,
150-member House of Representatives). The House of Representatives selects as
head of government the Prime Minister, who then appoints his cabinet. Judicial--independent
judiciary. Administrative subdivisions: Six states and two territories.
parties: Liberal, Nationals, Australian Labor, Australian Democrats, Australian
Greens, and Family First. The Liberal Party and the Nationals form the governing
Suffrage: Universal and compulsory over 18.
budget: FY 2004-05 $149.86 billion; FY 2005-06 $158.76 billion.
of GDP for FY 2005-06.
GDP: (2004) $587.3 billion.
Inflation rate: (2004) 2.3% p.a.
Exports ($112.6 billion, 2004)--coal, iron ore, non-monetary gold, crude
petroleum and bovine meat. Major markets--Japan, U.S. ($10.3 billion),
China, New Zealand, South Korea.
Imports ($148.1 billion, 2004)--passenger
motor vehicles, crude petroleum, computers, medicaments and telecommunications
equipment. Major suppliers--U.S. ($19.8 billion), China, Japan, Germany,
aboriginal inhabitants, a hunting-gathering people generally referred to as Aboriginals
and Torres Straits Islanders, arrived more than 40,000 years ago. Although their
technical culture remained static--depending on wood, bone, and stone tools and
weapons--their spiritual and social life was highly complex. Most spoke several
languages, and confederacies sometimes linked widely scattered tribal groups.
Aboriginal population density ranged from one person per square mile along the
coasts to one person per 35 square miles in the arid interior. When Capt. James
Cook claimed Australia for Great Britain in 1770, the native population may have
numbered 300,000 in as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages. The
aboriginal population currently numbers more than 410,000, representing about
2.2% of the population. Since the end of World War II, the government and the
public have made efforts to be more responsive to aboriginal rights and needs.
Immigration has been a key to
Australia's development since the beginning of European settlement in 1788. For
generations, most settlers came from the British Isles, and the people of Australia
are still predominantly of British or Irish origin, with a culture and outlook
similar to those of Americans. However, since the end of World War II, the population
has more than doubled; non-European immigration, mostly from the Middle East,
Asia, and Latin America, has increased significantly since 1960 through an extensive,
planned immigration program. From 1945 through 2000, nearly 5.9 million immigrants
settled in Australia, and about 80% have remained; nearly two of every seven Australians
is foreign-born. Britain and Ireland have been the largest sources of post-war
immigrants, followed by Italy, Greece, New Zealand, and the former Yugoslavia.
Australia's humanitarian and
refugee admissions of about 12,000 per year are in addition to the normal immigration
program. In recent years, refugees from Africa, the Middle East, and Southwest
Asia have comprised the largest element in Australia's refugee program.
Australia has scarcely more than two people per square kilometer, it is one of
the world's most urbanized countries. Less than 15% of the population lives in
Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive
Australian features have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and
the influence of Australia's neighbors. The vigor and originality of the arts
in Australia--films, opera, music, painting, theater, dance, and crafts--are achieving
actors such as Nicole Kidman, Rachel Griffiths, Cate Blanchett, Russell Crowe,
Geoffrey Rush, Paul Hogan, Hugh Jackman, Heath Ledger, and children’s entertainers,
The Wiggles, have achieved enormous popularity in the United States. Australian
movies and directors such as Peter Weir and Philip Noyes also are well known.
Australia has had a widely respected
school of painting since the early days of European settlement, and Australians
with international reputations include Sidney Nolan, Russell Drysdale, and Pro
Hart and Arthur Boyd. Writers who have achieved world recognition include Thomas
Keneally, Colleen McCullough, Nevil Shute, Morris West, Jill Ker Conway, and Nobel
Prize winner Patrick White.
was uninhabited until stone-culture peoples arrived, perhaps by boat across the
waters separating the island from the Indonesia archipelago more than 40,000 years
ago. Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and English explorers observed the island before
1770, when Captain Cook explored the east coast and claimed it for Great Britain
(three American colonists were crew members aboard Cook's ship, the Endeavour).
On January 26, 1788 (now celebrated
as Australia Day), the First Fleet under Capt. Arthur Phillip landed at Sydney,
and formal proclamation of the establishment of the Colony of New South Wales
followed on February 7. Many but by no means all of the first settlers were convicts,
many condemned for offenses that today would often be thought trivial. The mid-19th
century saw the beginning of government policies to emancipate convicts and assist
the immigration of free persons. The discovery of gold in 1851 led to increased
population, wealth, and trade.
six colonies that now constitute the states of the Australian Commonwealth were
established in the following order: New South Wales, 1788; Tasmania, 1825; Western
Australia, 1830; South Australia, 1836; Victoria, 1851; and Queensland, 1859.
Settlement had preceded these dates in most cases. Discussions between Australian
and British representatives led to adoption by the British Government of an act
to constitute the Commonwealth of Australia in 1900. Since Federation, the Commonwealth
Government has established two self-governing territories: the Northern Territory,
1978; and the Australian Capital Territory (where the national capital, Canberra,
is located), 1989.
federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901 by the Duke of York (later
King George V). In May 1927, the seat of government was transferred to Canberra,
a planned city designed by an American, Walter Burley Griffin. The first session
of Parliament in that city was opened by another Duke of York (later King George
VI). Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act on October 9, 1942,
which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and
external affairs. Its passage formalized a situation that had existed for years.
The Australia Act (1986) eliminated the last vestiges of British legal authority.
Commonwealth government was created with a Constitution patterned partly on the
U.S. Constitution, although it does not include a "bill of rights." The powers
of the Commonwealth are specifically defined in the Constitution, and the residual
powers remain with the states.
is an independent nation within the Commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth II is the head
of state and since 1973 has been officially styled "Queen of Australia." The Queen
is represented throughout Australia by a governor general and in each state by
The federal Parliament
is bicameral, consisting of a 76-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives.
Twelve senators from each state are elected for 6-year terms, with half elected
every 3 years. Each territory has two senators who are elected for 3-year terms.
The members of the House of Representatives are allocated among the states and
territories roughly in proportion to population. In ordinary legislation, the
two chambers have coordinate powers, but all proposals for appropriating revenue
or imposing taxes must be introduced in the House of Representatives. Under the
prevailing Westminster parliamentary system, the leader of the political party
or coalition of parties that wins a majority of the seats in the House of Representatives
is named prime minister. The prime minister and the cabinet wield actual power
and are responsible to the Parliament, of which they must be elected members.
General elections are held at least once every 3 years; the last general election
was in October 2004.
is headed by a premier, who is the leader of the party with a majority or a working
minority in the lower house of the state legislature. Australia's two self-governing
territories have political systems similar to those of the states. The Territories
are headed by Chief Ministers who are the leader of the party with a majority
or a working minority in the territories' legislature.
the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. It has general appellate
jurisdiction over all other federal and state courts and possesses the power of
Governor General--Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael Jeffery
Minister--John W. Howard
Foreign Minister--Alexander Downer
the United States--Dennis Richardson
Ambassador to the United Nations--Robert
Australia maintains an embassy in the United
States at 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202-797-3000),
and consulates general in New York (212-351-6500), San Francisco (415-536-1970),
Honolulu (808-524-5050), Los Angeles (310-229-4800), Chicago (312-419-1480) and
Three political parties dominate the center of the Australian
political spectrum: the Liberal Party (LP), nominally representing urban business-related
groups; the Nationals, nominally representing rural interests; and the Australian
Labor Party (ALP), nominally representing the trade unions and liberal groups.
Although embracing some leftists, the ALP traditionally has been moderately socialist
in its policies and approaches to social issues. All political groups are tied
by tradition to domestic welfare policies that have kept Australia in the forefront
of societies offering extensive social welfare programs. Australia's social welfare
programs have been reduced, however, in response to budgetary pressures and a
changing political outlook. There is strong bipartisan sentiment on many international
issues, including Australia's commitment to its alliance with the United States.
The Liberal Party/Nationals coalition
came to power in 1996, ending 13 years of ALP government and electing John Howard
Prime Minister. Re-elected in October 1998, November 2001, and October 2004, the
coalition now holds 87 seats (75 Liberal/12 National) in the House of Representatives,
against 60 for the ALP, and 3 independents. Currently, in the Senate, the coalition
holds a 39-seat majority in the 76-seat chamber, against 28 for the ALP, 4 for
the Australian Democrats, 4 for the Australian Greens, and 1 for the Family First
coalition moved quickly to reduce Australia's government deficit and the influence
of organized labor, and reform Australia's tax and social welfare systems. The
Howard government also has accelerated the pace of privatization, beginning with
the government-owned telecommunications corporation. The Howard government has
continued the foreign policy of its predecessors, based on relations with four
key countries: the United States, Japan, China, and Indonesia. The Howard government
strongly supports U.S. engagement in the Asia-Pacific region and has sent troops
as part of the coalitions in Afghanistan and Iraq. National elections took place
October 9, 2004, and likely will take place again in late 2007 or early 2008.
advanced market economy is dominated by its services sector (71% of GDP), yet
it is the agricultural and mining sectors (8% of GDP combined) that account for
the bulk (52%) of Australia's goods and services exports. Australia's comparative
advantage in primary products is a reflection of the natural wealth of the Australian
continent and its small domestic market; 20 million people occupy a continent
the size of the contiguous United States. The relative size of the manufacturing
sector has been declining for several decades, and now accounts for around 10%
Australia commenced a
basic reorientation of its economy in the 1980s and has transformed itself from
an inward looking, import-substitution country to an internationally competitive,
export-oriented one. Key reforms included unilaterally reducing high tariffs and
other protective barriers; floating the Australian dollar exchange rate; deregulating
the financial services sector, including liberalizing access for foreign bank
branches; making efforts to restructure the highly centralized system of industrial
relations and labor bargaining; better integrating the state economies into a
national federal system; improving and standardizing the national infrastructure;
privatizing many government-owned services and public utilities; and fundamentally
reforming the taxation system, including introducing a broad-based Goods and Services
The ultimate goal
is for Australia to become a competitive producer and exporter, not just of traditional
farm and mineral commodities, but also of a diversified mix of high value-added
manufactured products, services, and technologies. Australia was one of the OECD's
fastest-growing economies throughout the 1990s, a performance that owed much to
the economic reform program. Despite a transient slowdown in late 2000, it has
been 16 years since Australia experienced a recession, and economic growth remains
robust. Economic growth should be just under 3% for 2005, although the persistent
strength of the Australian dollar and infrastructure bottlenecks could constrain
Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) entered into force on January 1, 2005. The AUSFTA
marks the first FTA the U.S. has concluded with a developed economy since the
U.S.-Canada FTA in 1988. Australia has also completed FTAs with Singapore and
Thailand and is pursuing similar Agreements in the region. A burgeoning trade
relationship marked by ongoing, multi-billion dollar resource export contracts
has driven FTA negotiations with China. Parallel efforts are underway with Malaysia
Australia has been active participant in international affairs
since World War I and has fought beside the United States and other Allies in
every significant conflict to the present day. In 1944, it concluded an agreement
with New Zealand dealing with the security, welfare, and advancement of the people
of the independent territories of the Pacific (the ANZAC pact). After the war,
Australia played a role in the Far Eastern Commission in Japan and supported Indonesian
independence during that country's revolt against the Dutch (1945-49). Australia
was one of the founders of both the United Nations and the South Pacific Commission
(1947), and in 1950, it proposed the Colombo Plan to assist developing countries
in Asia. In addition to contributing to UN forces in Korea--it was the first country
to announce it would do so after the United States--Australia sent troops to assist
in putting down the communist revolt in Malaya in 1948-60 and later to combat
the Indonesian-supported invasion of Sarawak in 1963-65. The U.S., Australia and
New Zealand signed the ANZUS Treaty in 1951, which remains Australia’s only formal
security treaty alliance. Australia also sent troops to assist South Vietnamese
and U.S. forces in Vietnam and joined coalition forces in the Persian Gulf conflict
in 1991, in Afghanistan in 2002, and in Iraq in 2003.
has been active in the Australia-New Zealand-U.K. agreement and the Five-Power
Defense Arrangements--successive arrangements with Britain and New Zealand to
ensure the security of Singapore and Malaysia.
of the drafters of the UN Charter, Australia has given firm support to the United
Nations and its specialized agencies. It was a member of the Security Council
in 1986-87, a member of the Economic and Social Council for 1986-89, and a member
of the UN Human Rights Commission for 1994-96 and 2003-2005. Australia takes a
prominent part in many other UN activities, including peacekeeping, nonproliferation
and disarmament negotiations, and narcotics control. Australia also is active
in meetings of the Commonwealth Regional Heads of Government and the Pacific Islands
Forum, and has been a leader in the Cairns Group--countries pressing for agricultural
trade reform in World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations--and in the APEC forum.
Australia has devoted particular
attention to relations between developed and developing nations, with emphasis
on the ten countries of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and
the island states of the South Pacific. Australia is an active participant in
the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), which promotes regional cooperation on security
issues. In September 1999, acting under a UN Security Council mandate, Australia
led an international coalition to restore order in East Timor upon Indonesia's
withdrawal from that territory. In 2006, Australia again participated in an international
peacekeeping operation in East Timor. In 2003, Australia led a regional mission
to restore law and order in Solomon Islands.
provided over $1.6 billion ($A2.1 billion) as official development assistance
in FY 2004-05. The Australian aid program is currently concentrated in Southeast
Asia (Papua New Guinea is the largest-single recipient) and the Pacific Islands.
In 2004, Australia commenced a 5-year $0.8 billion ($A1.1 billion) Enhanced Cooperation
Program (ECP), which involved government officials working alongside their PNG
counterparts. The future of the program was called into question in 2005, however,
when ECP immunity provisions for Australian officials were successfully challenged
in the PNG high court. Selected aid flows are allocated to Africa, South Asia,
and reconstruction in Afghanistan and Iraq. Contributions to multilateral organizations
and other expenses account for about one-third of the foreign assistance budget.
The Australia, New Zealand, United States (ANZUS) security
treaty was concluded at San Francisco on September 1, 1951, and entered into force
on April 29, 1952. The treaty bound the signatories to recognize that an armed
attack in the Pacific area on any of them would endanger the peace and safety
of the others. It committed them to consult in the event of a threat and, in the
event of attack, to meet the common danger in accordance with their respective
constitutional processes. The three nations also pledged to maintain and develop
individual and collective capabilities to resist attack.
1985, the nature of the ANZUS alliance changed after the Government of New Zealand
refused access to its ports by nuclear-weapons-capable and nuclear-powered ships
of the U.S. Navy. The United States suspended defense obligations to New Zealand,
and annual bilateral meetings between the U.S. Secretary of State and the Australian
Foreign Minister replaced annual meetings of the ANZUS Council of Foreign Ministers.
The first bilateral meeting was held in Canberra in 1985. At the second, in San
Francisco in 1986, the United States and Australia announced that the United States
was suspending its treaty security obligations to New Zealand pending the restoration
of port access. Subsequent bilateral Australia-U.S. Ministerial (AUSMIN) meetings
have alternated between Australia and the United States. The 17th AUSMIN meeting
took place in Australia in November 2005.
U.S.-Australia alliance under the ANZUS Treaty remains in full force. Defense
ministers of one or both nations have joined the annual ministerial meetings,
which are supplemented by consultations between the U.S. Combatant Commander,
Pacific and the Australian Chief of Defense Force. There also are regular civilian
and military consultations between the two governments at lower levels.
has no integrated defense structure or dedicated forces. However, in fulfillment
of ANZUS obligations, Australia and the United States conduct a variety of joint
activities. These include military exercises ranging from naval and landing exercises
at the task-group level to battalion-level special forces training, assigning
officers to each other's armed services, and standardizing, where possible, equipment
and operational doctrine. The two countries also operate joint defense facilities
Following the terrorist
attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, Australian Prime Minister
Howard invoked the ANZUS Treaty for the first time on September 14, 2001. Australia
was one of the earliest participants in Operation Enduring Freedom. Australian
Defense Forces participated in coalition military action against Iraq in Operation
Iraqi Freedom. Australian military and civilian specialists are participating
in the training of Iraqi security forces and the reconstruction of Iraq. Australian
Special Forces redeployed to Afghanistan to help provide security for the country's
September 18, 2005 elections.
a review in 2000 of Australia's future defense needs, the government made a commitment
to increase defense spending by an average of 3% a year for the next 10 years.
The Australian Defense Force numbers about 52,000 active duty personnel. The Royal
Australian Navy's front-line fleet currently includes 12 frigates, including 4
of the Adelaide class and 7 Australian-built ANZAC class, with 1 more to be delivered
by 2006. The last of six submarines of the new, indigenous Collins class was commissioned
in March 2003. An upgraded version of the US Navy's Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
will be the Australian Navy's air warfare destroyer after the August 2005 selection
of American firm Gibbs and Cox as the preferred designer for the $4.6 billion
project. In August 2004, Australia selected the Aegis Combat Control System for
its three air warfare destroyers, which will start coming into service in 2013.
The F/A-18 fighter, built in Australia under license from the U.S. manufacturer,
is the principal combat aircraft of the Royal Australian Air Force, backed by
the U.S.-built F-111 strike aircraft. In October 2002, Australia became a Level
III partner in the U.S.-led Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. Both of their
current fighters are scheduled to exit service by 2012 when they will be replaced
by up to 100 JSF aircraft. Boeing will provide the Commonwealth of Australia's
Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) with an Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C)
system based on the Next-Generation 737-700 aircraft as the airborne platform.
The first two aircraft are planned to be in service by late 2006, with four more
due for delivery by 2008. Recent U.S. sales to the Royal Australian Army include
the M1A1 AIM tank, as well as Hellfire and JAVELIN munitions.
The World War II experience, similarities in culture and historical
background, and shared democratic values have made U.S. relations with Australia
exceptionally strong and close. Ties linking the two nations cover the entire
spectrum of international relations--from commercial, cultural, and environmental
contacts to political and defense cooperation. Two-way trade reached $30.1 billion
in 2004. More than 400,000 Americans have visited Australia in a single year.
Traditional friendship is reinforced
by the wide range of common interests and similar views on most major international
questions. For example, both countries sent military forces to the Persian Gulf
in support of UN Security Council resolutions relating to Iraq's occupation of
Kuwait; both attach high priority to controlling and eventually eliminating chemical
weapons, other weapons of mass destruction, and anti-personnel landmines; and
both work closely on global environmental issues such as slowing climate change
and preserving coral reefs. The Australian Government and opposition share the
view that Australia's security depends on firm ties with the United States, and
the ANZUS Treaty enjoys broad bipartisan support. Recent Presidential visits to
Australia (in 1991, 1996 and 2003) and Australian Prime Ministerial visits to
the United States (in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006)
have underscored the strength and closeness of the alliance.
bilateral Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) entered into force on January
1, 2005. This comprehensive agreement, only the second FTA the U.S. had negotiated
with a developed nation, substantially liberalizes an already vibrant trade and
investment relationship. The AUSFTA also creates a range of ongoing working groups
and committees designed to explore further trade reform in the bilateral context.
countries share a commitment to liberalizing global trade. They work together
very closely in the World Trade Organization (WTO), and both are active members
of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum.
number of U.S. institutions conduct scientific activities in Australia because
of its geographical position, large land mass, advanced technology, and, above
all, the ready cooperation of its government and scientists. Under an agreement
dating back to 1960 and since renewed, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA) maintains in Australia one of its largest and most important
program outside the United States, including a number of tracking facilities vital
to the U.S. space program. Indicative of the broadranging U.S.-Australian cooperation
on other global issues, a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) was concluded
in 1997, enhancing already close bilateral cooperation on legal and counter-narcotics
issues. In 2001, the U.S. and Australia signed a new tax treaty and a bilateral
social security agreement.
Ambassador--Robert D. McCallum,
Deputy Chief of Mission--Michael Owens
Consular Affairs Coordinator--Suzanne
Lawrence (resident in Sydney)
Economic Counselor--Matt Matthews
Management Counselor--Grace Stettenbauer
Affairs Counselor--Susan Crystal
Defense and Air Attache and Representative
of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Commander in Chief Pacific--Col.
Mike Mahar, USAF
Agricultural Counselor--Kathleen Wainio
Officer--Beryl Blecher (resident in Sydney)
U.S. Embassy in Australia is located
at Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 (tel.
(02) 6-214-5600; fax 6-214-5970). Consulates General are in Sydney
(tel. 2-9373-9200; fax 2-9373-9125); Melbourne
(tel. 3-9526-5900; fax 3-9510-4646; and Perth (tel.
9-202-1224; fax. 9-231-9444).
AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information
Program provides Consular Information Sheets, Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements.
Consular Information Sheets exist for all countries and include information
on entry requirements, currency regulations, health conditions, areas of instability,
crime and security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts
in the country. Travel Warnings are issued when the State Department recommends
that Americans avoid travel to a certain country. Public Announcements
are issued as a means to disseminate information quickly about terrorist threats
and other relatively short-term conditions overseas that pose significant risks
to the security of American travelers. Free copies of this information are available
by calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-on-demand
system: 202-647-3000. Consular Information Sheets and Travel Warnings also are
available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page: http://travel.state.gov/. Consular
Affairs Tips for Travelers publication series, which contain information on obtaining
passports and planning a safe trip abroad, are available on the Internet and hard
copies can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.
information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be obtained from the Office
of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-5225. For after-hours emergencies,
Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-4000.
National Passport Information Center (NPIC) is the U.S. Department of State's
single, centralized public contact center for U.S. passport information. Telephone:
1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778). Customer service representatives and operators
for TDD/TTY are available Monday-Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time,
excluding federal holidays.
can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 877-FYI-TRIP (877-394-8747) and
a web site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel/index.htm
give the most recent health advisories, immunization recommendations or requirements,
and advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and countries. A booklet
entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280)
is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel.
Information on travel
conditions, visa requirements, currency and customs regulations, legal holidays,
and other items of interest to travelers also may be obtained before your departure
from a country's embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see
"Principal Government Officials" listing in this publication).
citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas are encouraged
their travel via the State Department's travel registration web site at https://travelregistration.state.gov/
or at the Consular section of the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country by filling
out a short form and sending in a copy of their passports. This may help family
members contact you in case of an emergency.
Department of State Web Site. Available on
the Internet at http://www.state.gov/, the Department
of State web site provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy
information, including Background Notes and
daily press briefings
along with the directory of key officers
of Foreign Service posts and more.
provides a portal to all export-related assistance and market information offered
by the federal government and provides trade leads, free export counseling, help
with the export process, and more.
a service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, provides authoritative economic,
business, and international trade information from the Federal government. The
site includes current and historical trade-related releases, international market
research, trade opportunities, and country analysis and provides access to the
National Trade Data Bank.