Republic of Brazil
8,511,965 sq. km. (3,290,000 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than the U.S.
Capital--Brasilia (pop. 2.3 million). Other cities--Sao Paulo (10.8
million), Rio de Janeiro (6.1 million), Belo Horizonte (2.4 million), Salvador
(2.6 million), Fortaleza (2.3 million), Recife (1.5 million), Porto Alegre (1.4
million), Curitiba (1.7 million).
Terrain: Dense forests in northern regions
including Amazon Basin; semiarid along northeast coast; mountains, hills, and
rolling plains in the southwest, including Mato Grosso; and coastal lowland.
Mostly tropical or semitropical with temperate zone in the south.
Population (2005 est.): 186 million.
Annual growth rate: 1.1%.
groups: Portuguese, Italian, German, Spanish, Japanese, Arab, African, and indigenous
Religion: Roman Catholic (74%).
Literacy--86% of adult population.
Health: Infant mortality rate--27.5/1,000.
Life expectancy--71.3 yrs.
Work force: 90.4 million.
Independence: September 7, 1822.
October 5, 1988.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state and
head of government popularly elected to no more than two 4-year terms). Legislative--Senate
(81 members popularly elected to 8-year terms), Chamber of Deputies (513 members
popularly elected to 4-year terms). Judicial--Supreme Federal Tribunal
(11 lifetime positions appointed by the president).
Political parties: Workers'
Party (PT), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Brazilian Social Democratic
Party (PSDB), Liberal Front Party (PFL), Social Democratic Party (PSD), Democratic
Workers Party (PDT), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Liberal Party (PL), Brazilian
Socialist Party (PSB), Communist Party of Brazil (PC do B), Brazilian Progressive
Party (PP). Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Green Party (PV), the Social Liberal
Party (PSL), the National Mobilization Party (PMN), National Workers Party (PTN),
Humanistic Solidarity Party (PHS), and the Party of the Reedification of the National
$619.7 billion (official exchange rate).
GDP: $1.579 trillion (purchasing power
Annual real growth: 2.4%.
Per capita GDP: $8,400 (purchasing power
Natural resources: Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium,
gemstones, oil, wood, and aluminum. Brazil has 14% of the world's renewable fresh
Agriculture (10% of GDP): Products--coffee, soybeans, sugarcane,
cocoa, rice, livestock, corn, oranges, cotton, wheat, and tobacco.
(39% of GDP): Types--steel, commercial aircraft, chemicals, petrochemicals,
footwear, machinery, motors, vehicles, auto parts, consumer durables, cement,
Services (51% of GDP): Types--mail, telecommunications,
banking, energy, commerce, and computing.
Trade: Trade balance 2005--$44
billion surplus. Exports--$118 billion. Major markets--European
Union 25.0%, United States 21.1%, and Mercosur 20.4%. Imports--$62.8 billion.
Major suppliers--European Union 25.4%, United States 21.2%, Argentina 7.6%,
and China 5.6%.
With its estimated 186 million inhabitants, Brazil has the
largest population in Latin America and ranks fifth in the world. The majority
of people live in the south-central area, which includes the industrial cities
of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte. Urban growth has been rapid;
by 2005, 81% of the total population was living in urban areas. This growth has
aided economic development but also has created serious social, security, environmental,
and political problems for major cities.
major groups make up the Brazilian population: the Portuguese, who colonized Brazil
in the 16th century; Africans brought to Brazil as slaves; various other European,
Middle Eastern, and Asian immigrant groups who have settled in Brazil since the
mid-19th century; and indigenous peoples of Tupi and Guarani language stock. Intermarriage
between the Portuguese and indigenous people or slaves was common. Although the
major European ethnic stock of Brazil was originally Portuguese, subsequent waves
of immigration have contributed to a diverse ethnic and cultural heritage.
1875 until 1960, about 5 million Europeans immigrated to Brazil, settling mainly
in the four southern states of Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande
do Sul. Immigrants have come mainly from Italy, Germany, Spain, Japan, Poland,
and the Middle East. The largest Japanese community outside Japan is in Sao Paulo.
Despite class distinctions, national identity is strong, and racial friction is
a relatively new phenomenon. Indigenous full-blooded Indians, located mainly in
the northern and western border regions and in the upper Amazon Basin, constitute
less than 1% of the population. Their numbers are declining as contact with the
outside world and commercial expansion into the interior increase. Brazilian Government
programs to establish reservations and to provide other forms of assistance have
existed for years but are controversial and often ineffective.
is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas. About three quarters of
all Brazilians belong to the Roman Catholic Church; most others are Protestant
, members of a growing evangelical movement, or follow practices derived from
Pedro Alvares Cabral
claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500. The colony was ruled from Lisbon until 1808,
when Dom Joao VI and the rest of the Portuguese royal family fled from Napoleon's
army, and established its seat of government in Rio de Janeiro. Dom Joao VI returned
to Portugal in 1821. His son declared Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822,
and became emperor with the title of Dom Pedro I. His son, Dom Pedro II, ruled
from 1831 to 1889, when a federal republic was established in a coup led by Deodoro
da Fonseca, Marshal of the Army. Slavery had been abolished a year earlier by
the Regent Princess Isabel while Dom Pedro II was in Europe.
1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional republic, with the presidency
alternating between the dominant states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais. This period
ended with a military coup that placed Getulio Vargas, a civilian, in the presidency;
Vargas remained as dictator until 1945. Between 1945 and 1961, Jose Linhares,
Gaspar Dutra, Vargas himself, Café Filho, Carlos Luz, Nereu Ramos, Juscelino Kubitschek,
and Janio Quadros were elected presidents. When Quadros resigned in 1961, Vice
President Joao Goulart succeeded him.
years in office were marked by high inflation, economic stagnation, and the increasing
influence of radical political elements. The armed forces, alarmed by these developments,
staged a coup on March 31, 1964. The coup leaders chose as president Humberto
Castello Branco, followed by Arthur da Costa e Silva (1967-69), Emilio Garrastazu
Medici (1969-74), and Ernesto Geisel (1974-79), all of whom were senior army officers.
Geisel began a democratic opening that was continued by his successor, Gen. Joao
Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo (1979-85). Figueiredo not only permitted the return
of politicians exiled or banned from political activity during the 1960s and 1970s,
but also allowed them to run for state and federal offices in 1982.
the same time, an electoral college consisting of all members of congress and
six delegates chosen from each state continued to choose the president. In January
1985, the electoral college voted Tancredo Neves from the opposition Brazilian
Democratic Movement Party (PMDB) into office as President. However, Neves became
ill in March and died a month later. His Vice President, former Senator Jose Sarney,
became President upon Neves' death. Brazil completed its transition to a popularly
elected government in 1989, when Fernando Collor de Mello won 53% of the vote
in the first direct presidential election in 29 years. In 1992, a major corruption
scandal led to his impeachment and ultimate resignation. Vice President Itamar
Franco took his place and governed for the remainder of Collor's term culminating
in the October 3, 1994 presidential elections, when Fernando Henrique Cardoso
was elected President with 54% of the vote. Cardoso took office January 1, 1995,
and pursued a program of ambitious economic reform. He was re-elected in October
1998 for a second four-year term. Luiz Inacio da Silva, commonly known as Lula,
was elected president in 2002, after his fourth campaign for the office.
Lula, a former union leader, is Brazil's first working-class president. Since
taking office he has taken a prudent fiscal path, warning that social reforms
would take years and that Brazil had no alternative but to maintain tight fiscal
austerity policies. Economic growth in 2004 and the first half of 2005 was strong
with increases in employment and real wages. Growth slowed somewhat in the second
half of 2005, but has accelerated in 2006.
AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Brazil is a federal republic with 26 states and
a federal district. The 1988 constitution grants broad powers to the federal government,
made up of executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The president holds
office for four years, with the right to re-election for an additional four-year
term, and appoints his own cabinet. There are 81 senators, three for each state
and the Federal District, and 513 deputies. Senate terms are eight years, staggered
so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and one-third
four years later. Chamber terms are four years, with elections based on a complex
system of proportional representation by states. Each state is eligible for a
minimum of eight seats; the largest state delegation (Sao Paulo's) is capped at
70 seats. This system is weighted in favor of geographically large but sparsely
Fifteen political parties
are represented in Congress. Since it is common for politicians to switch parties,
the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly.
The major political parties are:
- Liberal Front Party
- Brazilian Democratic Movement
- Brazilian Social Democratic
- Progressive Party
- Brazilian Labor Party (PTB-center-right)
- Liberal Party (PL-center-right)
Socialist Party (PSB-left)
- Popular Socialist
- Democratic Labor Party
- Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB-left)
- Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL – left)
Lula was re-elected October 29, 2006 in a second round victory with over sixty
percent of the vote, over Geraldo Alckmin of the PSDB. Lula’s PT party failed
to win a majority in either the lower or upper houses in concurrent legislative
elections and will be obliged to form a coalition with the centrist PMDB party
-- which won the most seats in the lower house and may end up with the largest
number in the Senate -- and a collection of minor parties. However, party loyalty
is weak in Brazil, and it is common for politicians to switch parties, changing
the balance of power in Congress. The PT won five of twenty-seven governorships,
but the opposition PSDB remains in control of the critical states of Sao Paulo
and Minas Gerais. The PMDB, as in the legislative elections, won the most governorships
of any one party, controlling seven states. Because of the mandatory revenue allocation
to states and municipalities provided for in the 1988 constitution, Brazilian
governors and mayors have exercised considerable power since 1989.
electoral victory came despite a series of corruption scandals that resulted in
the resignation of senior PT officials and the electoral defeat of several congressmen
from parties allied to the PT. At least four congressional investigations are
ongoing, though Lula has yet to be personally linked to any of the scandals.
of State and Cabinet Members
President--Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
President--Jose Alencar Gomes da Silva
Minister-Chief Casa Civil (Chief of
Secretary General--Luiz Dulci
Secretary for Economic
and Social Development--Patrus Ananias
Minister for Institutional Security--Gen.
Jorge Armando Felix
Inspector General--Jorge Hage Sobrinho
Secretary for Political Coordination--Tarso Genro
for Racial Equality--Matilde Ribeiro
Secretary for Women’s Affairs--Nilceia
Solicitor General--Alvaro Ribeiro Costa
Minister of Agrarian Development--Guilherme
Minister of Agriculture—Luis Carlos Guedes
Minister of Cities--Marcio
Minister of Communication--Helio Costa
Minister of Culture--Gilberto
Minister of Defense--Waldir Pires
Minister of Development, Industry,
& Trade--Luiz Fernando Furlan
Minister of Education--Fernando Haddad
of Environment--Marina Silva
Minister of Finance--Guido Mantega
of Foreign Affairs--Celso Amorim
Minister of Health-- Agenor Alvares
of Justice--Marcio Tomaz Bastos
Minister of Labor and Employment--Luiz Marinho
of Mines and Energy--Silas Rondeau
Minister of National Integration--Pedro
Minister of Planning and Budget--Paulo Bernardo
Minister of Science
and Technology--Sergio Rezende
Minister of Social Development--Patrus Ananias
of Social Security--Nelson Machado
Minister of Sports--Orlando Silva
of Tourism--Walfrido Mares Guia
Minister of Transportation--Paulo Sérgio Passos
Bank President--Henrique Meirelles
Ambassador to the United States--Roberto
Ambassador to the United Nations--Ronaldo Sardenberg
to the OAS--Osmar Vladimir Chohfi
The Offices of Political Coordination and Human Rights, and the Secretariat of
Communications have been consolidated into the Ministry of Economic and Social
Development, Justice, and the Chief of Staff, respectively.
maintains an embassy in the United States
at 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-238-2700). Brazil
has consulates general in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, and consulates in
Miami, Houston, Boston, and San Francisco.
economy, aided by a benign international environment, grew approximately 2.3%
in 2005 and 4.9% in 2004. Sustained growth, coupled with booming exports, healthy
external accounts, moderate inflation, decreasing unemployment, and reductions
in the debt-to-GDP ratio. President Lula and his economic team have implemented
prudent fiscal and monetary policies and have pursued necessary microeconomic
Brazil has made progress but
significant vulnerabilities remain. Despite registering its first year-on-year
decline in 2004, Brazil's (largely domestic) government debt remains high, at
51% of GDP. Total foreign debt, while falling, is still large in relation to Brazil's
export base. Over time this concern will be reduced by healthy export growth,
which has anchored the positive trade and current accounts. Personal incomes improved
in 2004 and 2005 after a significant decline over the previous decade. Income
and land distribution remains skewed.
high growth rates in the longer term depends on the impact of President Lula's
structural reform program and efforts to build a more welcoming climate for investment,
both domestic and foreign. In its first year, the Lula administration passed key
tax and pension reforms to improve the government fiscal accounts. Judicial reform
and an overhaul of the bankruptcy law, which should improve the functioning of
credit markets, were passed in late 2004, along with tax measures to create incentives
for long-term savings and investments.
promoting public private partnerships, a key effort to attract private investment
to infrastructure, also passed in 2004. Labor reform and proposals to increase
autonomy for the Central Bank are pending. Despite this well-considered reform
agenda, much remains to be done to improve the regulatory climate for investments,
particularly in the energy sector; to simplify tax systems at the state and federal
levels; and to further reform the pension system.
President Lula has made economic growth and poverty alleviation
top priorities. Export promotion is a main component in plans to generate growth
and reduce what is seen as a vulnerability to international financial market gyrations.
To increase exports, the government is seeking access to foreign markets through
trade negotiations and increased export promotion as well as government financing
To increase its international
profile (both economically and politically), the Lula administration is seeking
expanded trade ties with developing countries, as well as a strengthening of the
Mercosul (Mercosur in Spanish) customs union with Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina.
In 2004, Mercosul concluded free trade agreements with Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela
and Peru, adding to its existing agreements with Chile and Bolivia to establish
a commercial base for the newly-launched South American Community of Nations.
Mercosul is pursuing free trade negotiations with Mexico and Canada and has resumed
trade negotiations with the EU. The trade bloc also plans to launch trilateral
free trade negotiations with India and South Africa, building on partial trade
liberalization agreements concluded with these countries in 2004. In July 2006,
Venezuela was admitted to the trade bloc as a full member China has increased
its importance as an export market for Brazilian soy, iron ore and steel, becoming
Brazil's fourth largest trading partner and a potential source of investment.
In 2003, Congress passed Lula's key reforms of the public sector
pension system and the tax code. The 2004 legislative season was not very productive,
in part because of a political scandal early in the year followed by campaigning
for the October municipal elections. In December 2004, several key bills passed
into law, including a reform of the judicial system, a modern bankruptcy law,
and Public Private Partnerships to fund infrastructure projects. In March 2005,
a law to legalize biotechnology crops and stem cell research passed. The domestic
political scandal, which surfaced in June 2005 and led to multiple congressional
investigations, sidetracked most reform legislation for the remainder of the 2005
and 2006 sessions.
is a major sector of the Brazilian economy, and is key for economic growth and
foreign exchange. Agriculture accounts for 10% of GDP (30% when including agribusiness)
and 40% of Brazilian exports. Brazil enjoyed a positive agricultural trade balance
of U.S. $38 billion in 2005. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane,
coffee, tropical fruits, frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ), and has the
world's largest commercial cattle herd (50% larger than the U.S.) at 170 million
head. Brazil is also an important producer of soybeans (second to the United States),
corn, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, and forest products. The remainder of agricultural
output is in the livestock sector, mainly the production of beef and poultry (second
to the United States), pork, milk, and seafood.
Forests cover half of Brazil, with the largest rain forest in the
world located in the Amazon Basin. Recent migrations into the Amazon and large-scale
burning of forest areas have brought international attention. The government has
reduced incentives for such activity and is implementing an ambitious environmental
plan that includes an Environmental Crimes Law with serious penalties for infractions.
has one of the most advanced industrial sectors in Latin America. Accounting for
one-third of GDP, Brazil's diverse industries range from automobiles and parts,
other machinery and equipment, steel, textiles, shoes, cement, lumber, iron ore,
tin, and petrochemicals, to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables. Most major
automobile producers have established production facilities in Brazil.
has a diverse and sophisticated services industry as well. Mail and telecommunications
are the largest, followed by banking, energy, commerce, and computing. During
the 1990s, Brazil's financial services industry underwent a major overhaul and
is relatively sound. The financial sector provides local firms a wide range of
financial products. The largest financial firms are Brazilian (and the two largest
banks are government-owned), but U.S. and other foreign firms have an important
share of the market.
a flood of investors after 1996. The yearly investment average in the telecom
sector the 4 years prior to the start of privatization was R$5.8 billion, and
the annual average for the four years following privatization was R$16.3 billion,
nearly tripling. Investment in the electrical power sector increased from R$5.3
billion annually in the pre-privatization era to R$7.2 billion. U.S. companies
provided a great deal of this influx of cash. After 2000, many of these investors
suffered huge losses in the face of adverse regulatory decisions and especially
the sharp depreciation of the real. The energy sector was especially hard hit.
2001, Brazil experienced an electricity crisis due to inadequate rainfall for
its hydroelectric system and insufficient new investment in the sector. Mandatory
rationing and price hikes were sufficient to prevent blackouts. The rationing
system officially ended on March 1, 2002. Lula’s then-Energy Minister unveiled
an energy plan in July 2003, which left many vital details undefined and most
of Brazil has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported
oil. In the mid-1980s, imports accounted for more than 70% of Brazil's oil and
derivatives needs; the net figure is nearing zero. Brazil is expected to become
a net exporter of oil by the end of 2006 as output from the Campos Basin continues
to increase. Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power.
Of its total installed electricity-generation capacity of 90,000 megawatts, hydropower
accounts for 66,000 megawatts (74%).
mineral resources are extensive. Large iron and manganese reserves are important
sources of industrial raw materials and export earnings. Deposits of nickel, tin,
chromite, bauxite, beryllium, copper, lead, tungsten, zinc, gold, and other minerals
are exploited. High-quality, coking-grade coal required in the steel industry
is in short supply.
has traditionally been a leader in the inter-American community and played an
important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation
in the Western Hemisphere. Brazil supported the Allies in both World Wars. During
World War II, its expeditionary force in Italy played a key role in the Allied
victory at Monte Castello. It is a member of the Organization of American States
(OAS) and a party to the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty).
Recently, Brazil has given high priority to expanding relations with its South
American neighbors and is a founding member of the Latin American Integration
Association (ALADI), the Community of South American Nations (CASN) and Mercosul,
a customs union including Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Venezuela and Brazil,
with Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador as associate members.
with Argentina, Chile, and the U.S., Brazil is one of the guarantors of the Peru-Ecuador
peace process. Brazil is a charter member of the United Nations and participates
in its specialized agencies. It has contributed troops to UN peacekeeping efforts
in the Middle East, the former Belgian Congo, Cyprus, Mozambique, Angola, East
Timor, and most recently Haiti. Brazil is currently leading the UN peacekeeping
force in Haiti. Brazil served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council
from 2004-2005. Prior to this, it had been a member of the UN Security Council
four times. Brazil is lobbying for a permanent position on the Council.
Brazil's domestic economy has grown and diversified, the country has become increasingly
involved in international economic and trade policy discussions. For example,
Brazil has been a leader of the G-20 group of nations in the WTO Doha Round talks.
The U.S., Western Europe, and Japan are primary markets for Brazilian exports
and sources of foreign lending and investment. China is a growing market for Brazilian
exports. Brazil also has bolstered its commitment to nonproliferation through
ratification of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signing a full-scale
nuclear safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),
acceding to the Treaty of Tlatelolco, and joining the Missile Technology Control
Regime (MTCR) and the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
The United States was the first country to recognize Brazil's
independence in 1822. The two countries have traditionally enjoyed friendly, active
relations encompassing a broad political and economic agenda.
relationship between Brazil and the U.S. strengthened with the inauguration of
Brazil's internationally oriented, reformist President Fernando Henrique Cardoso
in 1995. President Bush invited then President-elect Lula to Washington for a
meeting in December 2002. President Lula again visited Washington for a summit
on June 20, 2003. Documents covering the results of the summit can be found on
the White House
and State Department
web sites. Deepening U.S.-Brazil engagement and cooperation are reflected in the
numerous recent high-level contacts between the two governments, including visits
to Brazil by President Bush in November 2005 (see Joint Statement), Secretary
of State Condoleezza Rice in April 2005 and then-Secretary of State Colin Powell
in October 2004, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld in March 2005, Treasury Secretary
John Snow in August 2005, and Commerce Secretary Carlos Gutierrez in June 2006,.
Brazilian Foreign Minister Amorim and many other members of President Lula’s cabinet
have visited the U.S.
of discussion and cooperation include trade and finance; hemispheric economic
integration; Free Trade Area of the Americas; regional security; nonproliferation
and arms control; human rights and trafficking in persons; international crime,
including financial support to terrorist groups; counter-narcotics; and environmental
issues. Existing bilateral agreements include an Education Partnership Agreement,
which enhances and expands cooperative initiatives in such areas as standards-based
education reform, use of technology, and professional development of teachers;
a Mutual Legal Assistance treaty--ratified in 2001; and agreements on cooperation
in energy, the environment, science & technology, and transportation.
Embassy and Consulate Functions
The U.S. embassy and consulates in Brazil
provide a wide range of services to U.S. citizens and business. Political, economic,
and science officers deal directly with the Brazilian Government in advancing
U.S. interests but also are available to brief U.S. citizens on general conditions
in the country. Attachés from the U.S. Commercial Service and Foreign Agriculture
Service work closely with hundreds of U.S. companies that maintain offices in
Brazil. These officers provide information on Brazilian trade and industry regulations
and administer several programs to aid U.S. companies starting or maintaining
business ventures in Brazil. The number of trade events and U.S. companies traveling
to Brazil to participate in U.S. Commercial Service and Foreign Agriculture Service
programs has tripled over the last three years.
consular section of the embassy provides vital services to the estimated 60,000
U.S. citizens residing in Brazil. Among other services, the consular section assists
Americans who wish to participate in U.S. elections while abroad and provides
U.S. tax information. Besides the U.S. residents living in Brazil, some 150,000
U.S. citizens visit annually. The consular section offers passport and emergency
services to U.S. tourists as needed during their stay in Brazil.
U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador—Clifford M. Sobel
Deputy Chief of
Defense Attaché--Captain Paul Bruno, U.S. Navy
Economic Counselor--Bruce Williamson
Political Counselor--Dennis Hearne
Science Counselor--Patricia Norman
Affairs Counselor—Richard Stites
Consul General in Sao Paulo--Christopher McMullen
General in Rio de Janeiro--Elizabeth Martinez
Consul in Recife--Diana Page
U.S. Embassy in Brasilia is located
at SES Avenida das Nacoes, quadra 801, lote 3, Brasilia, DF, CEP: 70.403-900 (tel.
55-61-3312-7000), (fax 55-61-3225-9136). Internet: http://brasilia.usembassy.gov/
consulates general are in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and a consulate is in
Recife. Consular agents are located in Manaus, Belem, Salvador, Fortaleza, and
Porto Alegre. Branch offices of the U.S. Foreign Commercial Services are located
in Brasilia, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte.
U.S. Department of Commerce
of Latin America and the Caribbean
International Trade Administration
and Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20230
Automated fax service for trade-related info: 202-482-4464
Chamber of Commerce of Sao Paulo
Rua da Paz, No. 1431
04713-001 - Chacara
Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil
Chamber of Commerce of Rio de Janeiro
Praca Pio X-15, 5th Floor
20040 Rio de Janeiro--RJ-Brazil
TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
Department of State's Consular Information Program provides Consular Information
Sheets, Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements. Consular Information Sheets
exist for all countries and include information on entry requirements, currency
regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and security, political
disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in the country. Travel Warnings
are issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to
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information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-term conditions
overseas that pose significant risks to the security of American travelers. Free
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Printing Office, telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.
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can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control
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a web site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel/index.htm
give the most recent health advisories, immunization recommendations or requirements,
and advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and countries. A booklet
entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280)
is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel.
Information on travel
conditions, visa requirements, currency and customs regulations, legal holidays,
and other items of interest to travelers also may be obtained before your departure
from a country's embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see
"Principal Government Officials" listing in this publication).
citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas are encouraged
their travel via the State Department's travel registration web site at https://travelregistration.state.gov/
or at the Consular section of the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country by filling
out a short form and sending in a copy of their passports. This may help family
members contact you in case of an emergency.
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along with the directory of key officers
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