Background Note: United
United Arab Emirates
Area: 82,880 sq. km. (30,000 sq. mi.); about the size of Maine.
Cities (2002 est.): Capital--Abu Dhabi (pop. 1,000,000);
Dubai (pop. 860,000).
Terrain: Largely desert with some agricultural areas.
Climate: Hot, humid, low annual rainfall.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--U.A.E., Emirati.
Population (2007 est.): 4.4 million.
Population growth rate (2007 est.): 4.0%.
Ethnic groups: Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Egyptian, Jordanian,
Iranian, Filipino, other Arab; (15-20% of residents are U.A.E.
Religions: Muslim (96%), Hindu, Christian.
Languages: Arabic (official), English, Hindi, Urdu, Persian.
Education: Years compulsory--ages 6-12. Literacy (U.A.E.
Health: Life expectancy--about 76 yrs.
Work force (2006) 2.968 million (93% foreign in 15-64 age group):
Agriculture--2.3%; industry--61.9%; services--35.8%.
Type: Federation of emirates.
Independence: December 2, 1971.
Provisional constitution: December 2, 1971.
Branches: Executive--7-member Supreme Council of Rulers,
which elects president and vice president. Legislative--40-member
Federal National Council (consultative only). Judicial--Islamic
and secular courts.
Administrative subdivisions: Seven largely self-governing city-states.
Political parties: None.
Suffrage: State-nominated electors chose half of the Federal National
Council seats in 2006.
Central government budget (2006): $7 billion.
GDP (2006 est.): $163 billion.
Annual growth rate (2006 est.): 9.7%.
Per capita GDP (2006 est.): $37,000.
Inflation rate (2006 est.): 10-13%.
Natural resources: Oil and natural gas.
Agriculture (2005 est., 2.0% of GDP): Products--vegetables,
dates, dairy products, poultry, fish.
Petroleum (2005 est.): 36%.
Manufacturing (2005 est.): 13%.
Services (44% of 2003 GDP): Trade, government, real estate.
Trade (2006 est.): Exports--$157 billion: petroleum, gas,
and petroleum products. Major markets--Japan, South Korea,
Thailand, India. Imports--$126.6 billion: machinery, chemicals,
food. Major suppliers--Western Europe, Japan, U.S., China,
Foreign economic aid (2004): In excess of $5.25 billion.
Only 15-20% of the total population of 4.4 million is U.A.E.
citizens. The rest include significant numbers of other Arabs--Palestinians,
Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis--as well as many Indians,
Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Iranians, Afghans, Filipinos, and west
of U.A.E. citizens are Sunni Muslims with a very small Shi'a minority.
Many foreigners also are Muslim, although Hindus and Christians
make up a portion of the U.A.E.'s foreign population.
standards among U.A.E. citizens population are rising rapidly.
Citizens and temporary residents have taken advantage of facilities
throughout the country. The UAE University in Al Ain had roughly
17,000 students in 2004. The Higher Colleges of Technology, a
network of technical-vocational colleges, opened in 1989 with
men's and women's campuses in each emirate. Zayed University for
women opened in 1998 with campuses in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Zayed
University will establish separate male campuses for the 2007-2008
academic year. American University Sharjah had over 4,500 students
enrolled in 2007. Many foreign universities, including ones from
the U.S., U.K., and Australia, also have campuses in the U.A.E.
The U.A.E. was formed from the group of tribally organized
Arabian Peninsula Sheikhdoms along the southern coast of the Persian
Gulf and the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Oman. This area
was converted to Islam in the Seventh century; for centuries it
was embroiled in dynastic disputes. It became known as the Pirate
Coast as raiders based there harassed foreign shipping, although
both European and Arab navies patrolled the area from the 17th
century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions to protect
the India trade from raiders at Ras al-Khaimah led to campaigns
against that headquarters and other harbors along the coast in
1819. The next year, a general peace treaty was signed to which
all the principal sheikhs of the coast adhered. Raids continued
intermittently until 1835, when the sheikhs agreed not to engage
in hostilities at sea. In 1853, they signed a treaty with the
United Kingdom, under which the sheikhs (the "Trucial Sheikhdoms")
agreed to a "perpetual maritime truce." It was enforced by the
United Kingdom, and disputes among sheikhs were referred to the
British for settlement.
in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the
United Kingdom and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds
in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the U.K.
with other Gulf principalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose
of any territory except to the United Kingdom and not to enter
into relationships with any foreign government other than the
United Kingdom without its consent. In return, the British promised
to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to
help out in case of land attack.
In 1955, the
United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter's dispute with
Saudi Arabia over the Buraimi Oasis and other territory to the
south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would
have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute; however, the
agreement has yet to be ratified by the U.A.E. Government. The
border with Oman also remains officially unsettled, but the two
governments agreed to delineate the border in May 1999. Since
that time, the U.A.E. has constructed a border fence along the
entire length with both Oman and Saudi Arabia. The new fence and
checkpoints will likely be finished by 2008-2009.
In 1968, the
U.K. announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end
the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms which
had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection.
The nine attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid-1971
they were unable to agree on terms of union, even though the termination
date of the British treaty relationship was the end of 1971. Bahrain
became independent in August and Qatar in September 1971. When
the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on December 1, 1971,
they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, six of them
entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The seventh,
Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972.
sent forces to help liberate Kuwait during the 1990-91 Gulf War.
U.A.E. troops have also participated in peacekeeping missions
to Somalia, Lebanon, Bosnia, Albania, Kosovo, and Kuwait.
In 2004, the
U.A.E.'s first and only president until that time, Sheikh Zayed
bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. His eldest son Khalifa bin Zayed Al
Nahyan succeeded him as Ruler of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with
the Constitution, the U.A.E.'s Supreme Council of Rulers elected
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan as U.A.E. Federal President. Mohammed
bin Zayed al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi.
In January 2006, Sheikh Makotum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, U.A.E.
Vice President and Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai, passed away
and was replaced by his brother, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al
Maktoum (MbR), Ruler of Dubai and U.A.E. Minister of Defense.
On February 9, 2006, the U.A.E. announced a cabinet reshuffle.
Several ministries were eliminated or renamed, while others were
Administratively, the U.A.E. is a loose federation of seven
emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government
in each emirate evolves from traditional to modern is set primarily
by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each
emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral
rights (notably oil and gas) and revenues. In this milieu, federal
powers have developed slowly. The constitution established the
positions of President (Chief of State) and Vice President, each
serving 5-year terms; a Council of Ministers, led by a Prime Minister
(head of government); a supreme council of rulers; and a 40-member
Federal National Council (FNC). The FNC is a consultative body
with half its members appointed by the emirate rulers and half
President, Ruler of Abu Dhabi--Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Vice President, Prime Minister, Minister of Defense, Ruler of
Dubai--Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Deputy Prime Minister--Sheikh Sultan bin Zayed al Nahyan
Deputy Prime Minister--Sheikh Hamdan bin Zayed al Nahyan
Deputy Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, Abu Dhabi Crown
Prince--Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Minister of Culture, Youth and Community Development--Abdul Rahman
Mohammed Al Owais
Minister of Economy--Sheikha Lubna Al Qasimi
Minister of Education--Dr. Hanif Hassan
Minister of Energy--Mohammed bin Dha'en Al Hamili
Minister of Environment and Water--Dr. Mohammed Saeed Al Kindi
Minister of Federal National Council Affairs--Dr. Anwar Mohammed
Minister of Finance and Industry--Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid Al
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Minister of Governmental Sector Development--Sultan Al Mansouri
Minister of Health--Humaid Mohammed Al Qatami
Minister of Higher Education--Sheikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan
Minister of Interior--Major Gen. Sheikh Saif bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Minister of Justice--Mohammed Nakhira Al Daheri
Minister of Labor--Dr. Ali bin Abdullah Al Kaabi
Minister of Presidential Affairs--Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al
Minister of Public Works--Sheikh amdan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan
Minister of Social Affairs--Mariam Mohammed Khalfan Al Roumi
Minister of State for Cabinet Affairs--Mohammad Abdullah Gergawi
Minister of State for Financial and Industrial Affairs--Dr. Mohammed
Khalfan Bin Kharbash
Minister of State for Foreign Affairs--Mohammed Hussain Al Sha'ali
to the United States--Saqr Ghobash
Ambassador to the United Nations--Abd al-Aziz Bin Nasir al-Shamsi
maintains an embassy in the United States at 3522 International
Court, NW, Washington, DC, 20008 (tel. 202-243-2400). The U.A.E.
Mission to the UN is located at 747 3rd Avenue, 36th Floor, New
York, NY 10017 (tel. 212-371-0480).
system in Dubai does not differ from that of the United Arab Emirates.
As of 2006, there are 88 public schools run by the Ministry of
Education that serve Emiratis and expatriate Arabs as well as
132 private schools. The medium of instruction in public schools
is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while
most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction.
Most private schools cater to one or more expatriate communities.
Delhi Private School, Our Own English High School, the Dubai Modern
High School, and The Indian High School, Dubai offer either a
CBSE or an ICSE Indian syllabus. Similarly, there are also several
reputable Pakistani schools offering FBISE curriculum for expatriate
children. Dubai English Speaking School, Jumeirah Primary School,
Jebel Ali Primary School, the Cambridge High School (or Cambridge
International School), Jumeirah English Speaking School, King's
School and the Horizon School all offer British primary education
up to the age of eleven. Dubai British School, Dubai College,
English College Dubai, Jumeirah College and St. Mary's Catholic
High School are all British eleven-to-eighteen secondary schools
which offer GCSE and A-Levels. Emirates International School provides
full student education up to the age of 18, this is an International
school and offers IGCSE and the IB program. Wellington International
School, which caters education from 4-18, offers IGCSE and A-Levels.
Deira International School also offers the IB program including
the IGCSE program.
of Education of the United Arab Emirates is responsible for school's
accreditation. The Dubai Education Council was established in July
2005 to develop the education sector in Dubai.
The Knowledge and Human Development Authority (KHDA) was established
in 2006 to develop education and human resource sectors in Dubai,
and license educational institutes.
10% of the population has university or postgraduate degrees.
Many expatriates tend to send their children back to their home
country or to Western countries for university education and even
to India for technology studies. However, a sizable number of
foreign accredited universities have been set up in the city over
the last ten years. Some of these universities include the Birla
Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (BITS Pilani), Heriot-Watt
University Dubai, American University in Dubai (AUD), the American
College of Dubai, SP Jain Center Of Management, University of
Wollongong in Dubai and Institute of Management Technology, Dubai.
In 2004, the Dubai School of Government in collaboration with
Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government and
Harvard Medical School Dubai Center (HMSDC) were established in
to any of these schools is based on the institutions respective
policies. They differ in deadlines of submission of applications,
admission procedures and tuition and matriculation fees. It is
best to contact the school or institution to inquire about its
The relative political and financial influence of each emirate
is reflected in the allocation of positions in the federal government.
The ruler of Abu Dhabi, whose emirate is the U.A.E.'s major oil
producer, is president of the U.A.E. The ruler of Dubai, which
is the U.A.E.'s commercial center, is vice president and prime
independence in 1971, the U.A.E. has worked to strengthen its
federal institutions. Nonetheless, each emirate still retains
substantial autonomy, and progress toward greater federal integration
has slowed in recent years. A basic concept in the U.A.E. Government's
development as a federal system is that a significant percentage
of each emirate's revenues should be devoted to the U.A.E. central
has no political parties. The rulers hold power on the basis of
their dynastic position and their legitimacy in a system of tribal
consensus. Rapid modernization, enormous strides in education,
and the influx of a large foreign population have changed the
face of the society. In December 2006, the U.A.E. held its first-ever
limited elections to select half the members of the FNC. Ballots
were cast by electors selected by the emir of each emirate. One
woman was elected to the FNC and seven additional women were appointed
to be council members.
The Trucial Oman Scouts, long the symbol of public order on
the coast and commanded by British officers, were turned over
to the U.A.E. as its defense forces in 1971. The U.A.E. armed
forces, consisting of 48,800 troops, are headquartered in Abu
Dhabi and are primarily responsible for the defense of the seven
in number, the U.A.E. armed forces are equipped with some of the
most modern weapon systems, purchased from a variety of outside
countries. The military has been reducing the number of foreign
nationals in its ranks, and its officer corps is composed almost
entirely of U.A.E. nationals. The U.A.E. air force has about 4,000
personnel. The Air Force has advanced U.S. F-16 BLOCK 60 multi-role
fighter aircraft. Other equipment includes French Mirage 2000-9
fighters, British Hawk trainer aircraft, 36 transport aircraft
and U.S. Apache and French Puma helicopters. The Air Defense Force
is linked into a joint air defense system with the other six Gulf
Cooperation Council (GCC) nations aimed at protecting the airspace
of the allied states. The U.A.E. Navy is small--about 2,500 personnel--and
maintains 12 well-equipped coastal patrol boats and 8 missile
boats. Although primarily concerned with coastal defense, the
Navy is constructing a six-unit class of blue water corvettes
in conjunction with French shipbuilder CMN. The U.A.E.'s Land
Forces are equipped with several hundred French LeClerc tanks
and a similar number of Russian BMP-3 armored fighting vehicles.
The U.A.E. Special Operations Command (SOC) is a small but effective
force centered on the counter-terrorism mission within the country.
SOC is well-financed, trained, and equipped and is capable of
executing its mission with a level of expertise equal to, or above,
the rest of the GCC.
contributes to the continued security and stability of the Gulf
and the Straits of Hormuz. It is a leading partner in the campaign
against global terrorism, providing assistance in the military,
diplomatic, and financial arenas since September 11, 2001
Prior to the first exports of oil in 1962, the U.A.E. economy
was dominated by pearl production, fishing, agriculture, and herding.
Since the rise of oil prices in 1973, however, petroleum has dominated
the economy, accounting for most of its export earnings and providing
significant opportunities for investment. The U.A.E. has huge
proven oil reserves, estimated at 98.8 billion barrels in 2003,
with gas reserves estimated at (212 trillion cubic feet); at present
production rates, these supplies would last well over 150 years.
In 2006, the U.A.E. produced about 2.8 million barrels of oil
in imports occurred in manufactured goods, machinery, and transportation
equipment, which together accounted for 70% of total imports.
Another important foreign exchange earner, the Abu Dhabi Investment
Authority--which controls the investments of Abu Dhabi, the wealthiest
emirate--manages an estimated $600 billion in overseas investments.
6,000 companies from more than 120 countries operate at the Jebel
Ali complex in Dubai, which includes a deep-water port and a free
trade zone for manufacturing and distribution in which all goods
for re-export or transshipment enjoy a 100% duty exemption. A
major power plant with associated water desalination units, an
aluminum smelter, and a steel fabrication unit are prominent facilities
near the complex.
the free trade zone, the U.A.E. requires at least 51% local citizen
ownership in all businesses operating in the country as part of
its attempt to place Emiratis into leadership positions.
As a member
of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), the U.A.E. participates
in a wide range of GCC activities that focus on economic issues.
These include regular consultations and development of common
policies covering trade, investment, banking and finance, transportation,
telecommunications, and other technical areas, including protection
of intellectual property rights.
The U.A.E. is a member of the United Nations and the Arab
League and has established diplomatic relations with more than
60 countries, including the U.S., Japan, Russia, the People's
Republic of China, and most western European countries. It has
played a moderate role in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries, the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries,
the United Nations, and the GCC.
development assistance has increased the U.A.E.'s stature among
recipient states. Most of this foreign aid (in excess of $15 billion)
has been to Arab and Muslim countries.
Iraq's 1990 invasion and attempted annexation of Kuwait, the U.A.E.
has sought to rely on the GCC, the United States, and other Western
allies for its security. The U.A.E. believes that the Arab League
needs to be restructured to become a viable institution and would
like to increase strength and interoperability of the GCC defense
In 2007, the
U.A.E. pledged and delivered $300 million to Lebanon, and was
the first country to fulfill its pledge. The
U.A.E. has provided significant monetary and material support
to the Iraqi Government, including a pledge of $215 million in
economic and reconstruction assistance, and has also provided
substantial aid to Afghanistan and the Palestinian Authority.
is a member of the following international organizations: UN and
several of its specialized agencies (ICAO, ILO, UPU, WHO, WIPO);
World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Arab League, Organization
of the Islamic Conference, Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries,
and the Non-Aligned Movement.
The United States has enjoyed friendly relations with the
U.A.E. since 1971. Private commercial ties, especially in petroleum,
have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which
include security assistance. The breadth, depth, and quality of
U.S.-U.A.E. relations increased dramatically as a result of the
U.S.-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait.
In 2002, the U.S. and the U.A.E. launched a strategic partnership
dialogue covering virtually every aspect of the relationship.
The U.A.E. has been a key partner in the War on Terror. U.A.E.
ports host more U.S. Navy ships than any port outside the U.S.
The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic
relations with the U.A.E. and has had an ambassador resident in
the U.A.E. since 1974.
Ambassador--Michele J. Sison
Deputy Chief of Mission--Martin Quinn
Political Officer--Al Magleby
Economic Officer--Oliver John
Consular Officer--Robert Dolce
Public Affairs Officer--Steven Pike
Management Officer--Stewart Devine
Commercial Officer--Christian Reed
Embassy mailing address--PO Box 4009, Abu Dhabi; tel: (971)
(2) 414-2200, PAO (971)(2) 414-2410; fax: (971)(2) 414-2603; Commercial
Office: (971)(2) 414-2304; fax: (971)(2) 414-2228; Consul General
in Dubai--Paul Sutphin; PO Box
9343; tel: (971) (4) 311-6000; fax: (971)(4) 311-6166, Commercial
Office: (971)(4) 311-6149).
AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
REQUIREMENTS: A passport is required. For stays of less than
60 days, U.S. citizens holding valid passports may obtain visitor
visas at the port of entry for no fee. For a longer stay, a traveler
must obtain a visa before arrival in the UAE. In addition, an
AIDS test is required for work or residence permits; testing must
be performed after arrival. A U.S. AIDS test is not accepted.
For further information, travelers can contact the Embassy of
the United Arab Emirates, 3522 International Court, NW, Washington,
DC 20037, telephone (202) 243-2400. See our Fore ign Entry
Requirements brochure for more information on the United Arab
Emirates and other countries. Visit the web site of the
UAE's Ministry of Information regarding tourism, business, and
residence in the UAE at http://www.uaeinteract.org/.
Unlike other countries in the region that accept U.S. military
ID cards as valid travel documents, the UAE requires U.S. military
personnel to present a valid passport for entry/exit.
will confiscate any weapons, weapon parts, ammunition, body armor,
handcuffs, and/or other military/police equipment transported
to or through a civilian airport. Americans have been arrested
and jailed for transporting such weapons and equipment without
the express written authorization of the UAE government, even
though airline and U.S. authorities allowed shipment on a US-originating
U.S. citizens and citizens of other countries that are not members
of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), who depart the UAE via
land are required to pay a departure fee. This fee is 20 UAE dirhams
and is payable only in the local UAE dirham currency.
The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program advises
Americans traveling and residing abroad through Country Specific
Information, Travel Alerts, and Travel Warnings. Country
Specific Information exists for all countries and includes
information on entry and exit requirements, currency regulations,
health conditions, safety and security, crime, political disturbances,
and the addresses of the U.S. embassies and consulates abroad.
Travel Alerts are issued to disseminate information
quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-term
conditions overseas that pose significant risks to the security
of American travelers. Travel Warnings are issued
when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel
to a certain country because the situation is dangerous or unstable.
For the latest
security information, Americans living and traveling abroad should
regularly monitor the Department's Bureau of Consular Affairs
Internet web site at http://www.travel.state.gov/,
where the current Worldwide
Alerts, and Travel
Warnings can be found. Consular
Affairs Publications, which contain information on obtaining
passports and planning a safe trip abroad, are also available
For additional information on international travel, see http://www.usa.gov/Citizen/Topics/Travel/International.shtml.
of State encourages all U.S citizens traveling or residing
abroad to register via the State
Department's travel registration website or at the nearest
U.S. embassy or consulate abroad. Registration will make your
presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact
you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date
information on security conditions.
information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be obtained
by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or
the regular toll line 1-202-501-4444 for callers outside the U.S.
Passport Information Center (NPIC) is the U.S. Department of State's
single, centralized public contact center for U.S. passport information.
Telephone: 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778). Customer service representatives
and operators for TDD/TTY are available Monday-Friday, 7:00 a.m.
to 12:00 midnight, Eastern Time, excluding federal holidays.
can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline
at 877-FYI-TRIP (877-394-8747) and a web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx
give the most recent health advisories, immunization recommendations
or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water safety
for regions and countries. A booklet entitled "Health Information
for International Travel" (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280)
is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.
FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Basic modern medical care
and medicines are available in the principal cities of the UAE,
but not necessarily in outlying areas.
on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food
and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained
from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline
for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747);
fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's Internet
site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information
about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World
Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information
for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.
INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans
to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling
abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether
it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
Department of State Web Site. Available on the
Internet at http://www.state.gov/, the Department
of State web site provides timely, global access to official U.S.
foreign policy information, including Background Notes and
daily press briefings
along with the directory of key officers of
Foreign Service posts and more. The Overseas Security Advisory
Council (OSAC) provides security information and regional news
that impact U.S. companies working abroad through its website
provides a portal to all export-related assistance and market
information offered by the federal government and provides trade
leads, free export counseling, help with the export process, and
STAT-USA/Internet, a service of
the U.S. Department of Commerce, provides authoritative economic,
business, and international trade information from the Federal government.
The site includes current and historical trade-related releases,
international market research, trade opportunities, and country
analysis and provides access to the National Trade Data Bank.