water molecule is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.
Click for 3-D image
The atoms are joined by chemical bonds
which are forces of attraction that hold atoms together. It is the bonds between
atoms that give molecules different properties than the atoms they are composed
A covalent bond is a bond that is formed
when two atoms share
Dot Structure is often used to represent sharing of electrons in bonds.
single bond is formed when 1 pair of electrons is shared; a double bond is formed
when 2 pairs of electrons are shared; and a triple bond is formed when 3 pairs
of electrons are shared.
salt is made up of two very elements that can be very dangerous, namely, sodium
and chlorine. Combined they form a safe compound.
Sodium and chlorine combine
during a reaction that will transfer one valence electron from sodium to chlorine.
After the transfer sodium and chlorine are no longer neutral. The sodium and
chlorine have becomes ions (atoms with unequal number of protons and electrons).
The chlorine now has a net charge of negative 1 (-1) and the sodium ion has a
charge of +1. Since objects of opposite charge attract each other, the two ions
will be held tightly together. This type of attraction is called an ionic bond.
In a crystal of sodium chloride, each ion will have six neighboring ions of
opposite charge. This makes ionic bonding a very strong type of interaction between
atoms. These strong bonds ionic compounds a high melting point.
bonds are formed when a hydrogen atom is shared between two molecules
bonds have polarity. The hydrogen atom above (+) in water is covalently attached
to a very electronegative oxygen atom (to right). It also shares its partial positive
charge with a second electronegative oxygen atom (left).