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A
line is a set of points described by an equation which may be written in the form
y=mx+b where the constant m is the slope of the line and b represents its y intercept.
As x varies y varies. In the figure above, as the temperature (T) of the system
varies, the kinetic energy (E) of the molecule varies. The line describes the
equation E=kT where k is the slope of the line.

The set of points which
satisfy the equation y=1/x is a hyperbola. As x varies y varies inversely. As
x becomes smaller y becomes larger. The movie above shows two particles of opposite
charge attracted to each other. The relationship between coulombic energy and
distance is an inverse relationship. The coulombic energy between the two particles
varies with -1/r, where r is the distance separating their center of masses. In
the movie notice that as r gets smaller, the potential energy becomes more negative.

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The movie above
shows that the torsion bond energy of a molecule can be modeled by a periodic
function.