,
### SELECTED PHYSICS HTML5 SIMULATIONS

#### Ohms Law

### HTML5 Physics Simulations for K-12 and Higher Education

#### PhET-

**Walter Fendt **
**Mechanics**

**Andrew Duffy --Boston University -- **
#### HTML5 Simulations

#### Great Thinkers Great Minds

#### Edinfomatics Activies

With Java applets on the decline for many years. JavaScript, HTML5, and other scripting languages have managed to take over applets both in terms of browser support and extra functionality. At EDinformatics we are transitioning from Java, Shockwave and Flash to HTML5 Simulations which can easily be used on all platforms.

**Constant Velocity vs, Constant Acceleration**

Graph constant velocity vs. constant acceleration. Ability to change velocity and acceleration of each object.

Ability to set launch speed and launch angle.

**Comparison of a ball dropped and one launched horizontally**-

Twop balls are set in motion under gravity. One is allowed to fall directly to the ground, the other is launched horizontally. Which ball hits the ground first.

This app shows a symmetrical lever with some mass pieces each of which has a weight of 1.0 N. The lever arms can be read from the coloured rectangles; one rectangle corresponds to 0.10 m. The lever is in balance when the app is started. You can attach a new mass piece or put it to another place with pressed mouse button. In a similar way you can remove a mass piece by clicking on it.

Ability to change the height of ramp or base of the ramp.

Horizontal Motion -- Position vs time.. ability to set the mass and spring constant.

**Spring Scale Simulation (Phet)**

Hang masses from springs and discover how they stretch and oscillate. Compare two mass-spring systems, and experiment with spring constant. Transport the lab to different planets, slow down time, and observe the velocity and acceleration throughout the oscillation. Go directly to simulation,.

Explore the forces at work when pulling against a cart, and pushing a refrigerator, crate, or person. Create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. Change friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.

Explore the interactions between various combinations of two atoms. Observe the the total force acting on the atoms or the individual attractive and repulsive forces. Customize the attraction to see how changing the atomic diameter and interaction strength affects the interaction.Go directly to simulation.

See how the equation form of Ohm's law relates to a simple circuit. Adjust the voltage and resistance, and see the current change according to Ohm's law.

Founded in 2002 by Nobel Laureate Carl Wieman, the PhET Interactive Simulations project at the University of Colorado Boulder creates free interactive math and science simulations. PhET sims are based on extensive education research and engage students through an intuitive, game-like environment where students learn through exploration and discovery.

**Oscillations and Waves**

**Electrodynamics**

**Optics**

**Physics of Atoms**

Photoelectric Effect |

Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom |

Nuclear Physics

Radioactive Decay Chains |

Law of Radioactive Decay |

**Vector Addition**

**Motion in 1 dimension**

- Motion Diagrams
- Constant Velocity vs. Constant Acceleration
- Graph matching (position + velocity graphs)
- 1-D motion: graphs
- Constant Acceleration, Same Physics
- Landing a rocket
- Ranking task - rank by acceleration
- Galileo's ramp (with sound)
- Relative velocity: race on a moving sidewalk

**Motion in 2 dimensions**

- Race between a dropped ball and one launched horizontally
- A ballistics cart
- Projectile Motion (set speed and angle)
- Projectile Motion (set initial velocity components)
- Projectile Motion (with motion diagram, velocity components, and graphs)
- Projectile Motion (with motion diagram and velocity components)
- Projectile Motion (changing the launch angle)
- Whole vectors
- The monkey and the hunter
- Motion with Constant Acceleration

**Forces**

- Force and motion in 1D
- The normal force
- Static friction
- Elevator physics
- Atwood's machine
- Force and motion in 1D, with friction
- Friction on an incline
- Ranking task - rank by net force

**Circular motion**

- Circular motion
- A ball on a string
- A disk on a turntable
- Gravitron (carnival ride model)
- Car on a banked turn

**Momentum and Energy**

- Momentum and Impulse
- Collisions in 1-Dimension
- Collisions in 1-Dimension, with bar graphs
- Puzzle - 1-D collision with interactive bar graphs
- Center of Mass
- Motion of the center of mass
- Motion with no net external force
- Kinetic energy and work
- Ball on a ramp
- Comparing ramps
- Energy graphs - object sliding down a ramp
- Energy graphs - object sliding down a ramp (with spring)
- Energy graphs for landing a rocket
- Energy bar graphs for a pendulum
- A ballistic pendulum

**Gravitation**

- Gravitational interactions
- Gravitational interactions - time evolution`
- A binary system
- The Earth and the Sun
- The Earth and the Sun - multiple Earths
- Orbits and Energy
- The inner solar system
- Closest planet to Earth (on average)
- Gravitational assist (slingshot)

**Rotation**

- Comparing rotational kinematics and 1-D motion
- Rotation of a revolving door
- Static equilibrium - a balanced beam
- Static equilibrium - three ways to calculate torque
- Static equilibrium - a hinged rod
- A block and a pulley
- A block and a pulley, with energy bar graphs
- Atwood's machine, re-visited
- Atwood's machine, with energy bar graphs
- Rolling - four views
- How a front-wheel-drive car works
- Rolling - the bowling ball problem
- Jumping on a merry-go-round
- An accelerating cylinder
- Rolling down a ramp

**Harmonic Motion**

- Connecting simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion
- A ball on a spring
- A ball on a spring - energy graphs
- A ball on a spring - with damping (friction)
- A spring wave (similar to pendulum wave)
- A Simple pendulum
- A simple pendulum, with damping

**Fluids**

- The buoyant force
- Apparent weight (and the buoyant force)
- Pressure in a static fluid
- Continuity - fluid in a pipe
- There's a hole in my bucket
- Ball dropping in a viscous fluid

**Heat and Thermodynamics**

- Thermometer
- Thermal expansion
- Add heat to water
- Mix ice and water
- Ideal gas
- Ideal gas (no histogram)
- A circular version of the previous simulation
- Diffusion
- Brownian motion
- Newton's law of cooling
- P-V diagram
- Isothermal, isobaric, and isochoric processes
- Comparing isothermal and adiabatic processes
- A sample thermodynamic cycle
- Why an adiabatic process changes temperature
- Energy flow in a heat engine
- Energy flow in an air conditioner or fridge

**Waves**

- A transverse wave
- A longitudinal wave
- A longitudinal wave on a spring
- A wave movie and a graph
- Measuring speed of sound
- The Doppler effect
- The Doppler effect, with graphs
- Constructive and destructive interference
- Interference of pulses
- Beats
- Reflections
- Standing waves on a string
- Standing waves in a pipe
- Photocopying a wave (rolling shutter)
- Photocopying a fidget spinner (rolling shutter)

**Electric charge and electric field**

- An electroscope
- An electroscope and a charged rod
- Coulomb's Law
- Coulomb's Law, plotting vs various functions of r
- Coulomb's Law - interactions between charged particles
- Coulomb's Law - interactions between charged particles - time evolution
- Electric field near two charges
- Potential energy for two charges
- Force and Potential energy for two charges
- Electric field and electric potential in 1-D
- Connecting Force and Energy; Field and Potential
- A charge in an electric field
- A charge on a string in an electric field
- Puzzle - determine the charge value
- Puzzle - determine the two charge values
- Puzzle - determine the two charge values from the graphs
- Puzzle - rank the three charges based on their magnitude

**Electric circuits**

- A basic circuit
- Ohm's law
- Ohm's law - current vs. voltage graph
- Ohm's law - current vs. resistance graph
- Power boxes - an introduction
- Power boxes - parallel circuit
- Power boxes - series circuit
- Power boxes - combination circuit
- Ranking task - rank by resistance
- Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuit
- Power boxes - RC series circuit

**Magnetism**

- The force on a charged particle in a magnetic field
- The trail behind a charged particle moving in a magnetic field
- A charged particle moving in three dimensions
- Mass spectrometer
- A cyclotron
- The magnetic field near two current-carrying wires
- The magnetic field in 1-dimension
- The force between current-carrying wires
- A direct-current motor
- Puzzle - rank the three currents based on their magnitude

**Electromagnetic induction**

- Animation of a magnet and a loop
- Move a magnet near a loop
- Moving a loop through a magnetic field
- Motional emf
- Electromagnetic railgun
- An electric generator

**AC Circuits**

**Electromagnetic waves**

- 3-D visualization of an EM wave
- Visualization of the visible spectrum
- Solar sail (radiation pressure)
- Doppler effect for EM waves
- One polarizer (polarized incident light)
- Three polarizers (unpolarized incident light)
- Three polarizers - what's behind the curtain?
- Optical activity

**Geometrical Optics - Reflection and mirrors**

- Color mixing (additive + subtractive)
- Reflection from a plane mirror, by Steven Sahyun
- Reflection and the role of time
- Reflection, the role of time, and the law of reflection
- How tall does a mirror have to be for you to see your whole self?
- Ray diagram for a converging, diverging, or plane mirror
- Test yourself - what's behind the curtain? (Mirrors)
- Test yourself - find the focal length
- Mirrors and time (the role of time in image formation)
- Mirrors and time (the role of time in image formation) - draggable
- Mirrors and time (the role of time in image formation) - graph

**Geometrical Optics - Refraction and lenses**

- Ray diagram for a converging or diverging lens
- Nice variation of the previous simulation by John Welch, showing the lens changing shape
- Test yourself - what's behind the curtain? (Lenses)
- Marching band model for refraction
- Refraction and the role of time
- Refraction, the role of time, and Snell's law
- Refraction
- Refraction in a rectangular block
- Refraction in three layers
- Total internal reflection (a model of an optical fiber)
- A prism
- Making a rainbow

**Interference and Diffraction**

- Interference in 2D
- Interference in 2D: exploring path-length difference
- Diffraction from a single-slit
- Single-slit diffraction and double-slit interference pattern
- A diffraction grating
- Reflection and transmission
- Thin-film interference (from Logan Scheiner)
- Newton's rings

**Quantum and Nuclear physics**

**Advanced (or other) topics**

**Addition HTML5 Simulations**