- ~270 AD
an ancient Greek engineer named Ctesibus made organs and water clocks
with movable figures.
In two works (Pneumatica and Automata) Heron of Alexandria
describes many machines and automata (mainly from previous sources)
First programmable humanoid robot -- Al-Jazari
- ~1495 -Early
design of a humanoid robot -- Leonardo DaVinco
- 1738 - Early
automaton, a mechanical duck that was able to eat grain, flap its
wings, and excrete.--Jacques de Vaucanson
- 1818 -
Mary Shelley wrote "Frankenstein" which was about a frightening artificial
lifeform created by Dr. Frankenstein.
- 1921 -
The term "robot" was first used in a play called "R.U.R." or "Rossum's
Universal Robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was simple:
man makes robot then robot kills man!
Early humanoid robot. It was exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's
Fairs-- Westinghouse Corp.
- 1941 -
Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word "robotics"
to describe the technology of robots and predicted the rise of a powerful
- 1942 -
Asimov wrote "Runaround", a story about robots which contained the
"Three Laws of Robotics":
- A robot may
not injure a human, or, through inaction, allow a human being
to come to harm.
- A robot must
obey the orders it by human beings except where such orders would
conflic with the First Law.
- A robot must
protect its own existence as long as such protection does not
conflict withe the First or Second Law.
- 1948 -
"Cybernetics", an influence on artificial intelligence research was
published by Norbert Wiener
- 1954 --Patent
submitted for first digitally controlled robot and first teachable
robot, (U.S. Patent 2,988,237) -- George Devol
- 1956 -
George Devol and Joseph Engelberger formed the world's first robot
- 1959 -
Computer-assisted manufacturingg was demonstrated at the Servomechanisms
Lab at MIT.
- 1961 -
The first industrial robot was online in a General Motors automobile
factory in New Jersey. It was called UNIMATE.
- 1963 -
The first artificial robotic arm to be controlled by a computer was
designed. The Rancho Arm was designed as a tool for the handicapped
and it's six joints gave it the flexibility of a human arm.
- 1965 -
DENDRAL was the first expert system or program designed to execute
the accumulated knowledge of subject experts.
- 1968 -
The octopus-like Tentacle Arm was developed by Marvin Minsky.
- 1969 -
The Stanford Arm was the first electrically powered, computer-controlled
- 1970 -
Shakey was introduced as the first mobile robot controlled by artificial
intellence. It was produced by SRI International.
- 1974 -
A robotic arm (the Silver Arm) that performed small-parts assembly
using feedback from touch and pressure sensors was designed.
- 1979 -
The Standford Cart crossed a chair-filled room without human assistance.
The cart had a tv camera mounted on a rail which took pictures from
multiple angles and relayed them to a computer. The computer analyzed
the distance between the cart and the obstacles.
- 2000 -
A humanoid robot that can recognize human faces, see stereoscopically,
walk and run on different types of ground (including stairs), and
respond (in words and in actions) to English and Japanese commands.
A History of Robots
ROBOTICS HOME PAGE
OF ROBOTS -- ROBOTS IN SPACE -- ROBOTIC SURGERY -- ROBOTS IN THE MILITARY
-- MORE --
Basics -- Robotics
Robots in the